Selected Bibliography on the Definition of "Being"
A lot of material can be found in the six volumes series: The Verb 'Be' and Its Synonyms. Philosophical and Grammatical Studies, edited by John W. M.
Verhaar, Dordrecht: Reidel Publishing Co. (1966-1973).
From the Editorial Preface to the sixth volume by John W. M. Verhaar: "The present volume is the sixth of a series of studies analyzing the verb 'to be'
and/or synonyms in a number of language; in contrast to preceding volumes, it is devoted to one language only: Ancient Greek. It is expected that these studies will provide some of the necessary
foundational research in logic, the theory of knowledge, and ontology; and possibly in other philosophical disciplines."
Two projected volumes were never published in this series: a study on 'to be' in biblical Hebrew and biblical Greek by James Barr (*) and a concluding volume with an attempt to
asses the linguistic and philosophical impact of all the contributions).
(*) On the subject see: James Barr, The Semantics of Biblical Language, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961: Chapter 4. Verbs, action and time - (d) - The
Verb 'To Be' - pp. 58-71.
Table of Contents of the original edition of the sixth volume of the series, Charles H. Kahn, The Verb 'Be' in Ancient Greek (Reprinted Indianapolis, Hackett
Publishing, 2003 with a new introduction)
Editorial Preface VII; Preface IX; Analytic Table of Contents XVII; Chapter I. The problem of the verb 'Be' 1; Chapter II. Subject, predicate, copula 38; Chapter III. Application of
the transformational analysis to Greek 60; Chapter IV. Description of the copula uses 85; Chapter V. The theory of the copula 184; Chapter VI. The verb of existence 228; Chapter VII. The veridical
use 331; Chapter VIII. The unity of the system of 'Be' in Greek 371; Appendix A. On the accent of esti and its position in the Sentence 420; Appendix B. On the theory of
nominal sentence 435; Appendix C. The nominalized forms of the verb: to ón and ousia 453; Bibliography 463; Index 468.
N.B. A separated page with a bibliography on the concept of 'Being' in Ancient Greek is under construction.
- Adamson Peter. "Before Essence and Existence: Al-Kindi's Conception of Being." Journal of History of Philosophy 40 (2002): 297-312.
- Alonso Alonso Manuel. ""Al-Qiwam" Y "Al-Anniyya" En Las Traducciones De Gundisalvo." Al-Andalus 22 (1957): 377-405.
- Alverny Marie-Therèse d'. "Anniyya - Anitas." In Mélanges Offerts À Étienne Gilson, De L'académie Française. 59-91. Paris: Vrin, 1959.
- Bashiri Iraj. 'To Be' as the Origin of Syntax: A Persian Framework. Minneapolis: Bibliotheca Islamica, 1973.
- Benardete Seth. "The Grammar of Being." Review of Metaphysics 30 (1977): 486-496.
- Bos Egbert Peter. "The Division of Being over the Categories According to Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas and John Duns Scotus." In John Duns Scotus
(1265/6-1308): Renewal of Philosophy, edited by Bos, Egbert Peter. 183-196. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1998.
Acts of the Third Symposium organized by the Dutch Society for Medieval Philosophy Medium Aevum (May 23 and 24, 1996).
"The number of categories turns out to be a problem for medieval philosophers. It is pointed out that Aristotle himself was not too consistent in his listings of the categories. Some medievalists try
to deduce the ten categories. Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas do so each in their own (although quite similar) ways, starting from their own respective ontologies. John Duns Scotus does not
undertake any kind of deduction. He stresses the 'realiter' difference between the diverse categories. He only accepts the number of ten categories on the basis of tradition. Scotus does reduce
'non-entia, figmenta', and so on to 'entia', as member of the categories."
- ———. "Nature and Number of the Categories and the Division of Being According to Domingo De Soto." In Medieval and Renaissance Logic in Spain, edited
by Angelelli, Ignacio and Pérez-Ilzarbe, Paloma. 327-353. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 2000.
- Caster Kevin K. "The Distinction between Being and Essence According to Boethius, Avicenna, and William of Auvergne." Modern Schoolman 73 (1996):
- Chauvier Stéphane. "L'étant Sans L'être." Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale (2006): 495-513.
"Why the analytical tradition has made no room for the question of being as such? We show that the explanation has to be found, not in the alleged empiricist tendencies of that tradition, but in the
fact that the analytical metaphysics in an investigation of the modes of being."
- Chiesa Curzio. "Idées De Négations." Revue de Théologie et de Philosophie 122 (1990): 353-364.
- Conti Alessandro D. "Essenza Ed Essere Nel Pensiero Della Tarda Scolastica." Medioevo.Rivista di Storia delle filosofia Medievale 15 (1989):
- Courtine Jean-François. Les Catégories De L'être. Études De Philosophie Ancienne Et Médiévale. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2003.
- Dumont Stephen. "The Univocity of the Concept of Being in the Fourteenth Century: John Duns Scouts and William of Alnwick." Mediaeval Studies 49
- Fabro Cornelio. "Intorno Al Fondamento Dell'essere." In Graceful Reason: Essays in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy Presented to Joseph Owens, Cssr on the
Occasion of His Seventy-Fifth Birthday and the Fiftieth Anniversary of His Ordination, edited by Gerson, Lloyd. 229-237. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1983.
- Fitzpatrick Noel. "Walter Chatton on the Univocity of Being: A Reaction to Peter Aureoli and William Ockham." Franciscan Studies 31 (1971):
- Franck Didier. "La Question De L'être: Sens De La Question Et Question Du Sens." In Heidegger L'enigne De L'être, edited by Mattéi, Jean-François.
71-103. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2004.
- Frank Richard MacDonough. "The Origin of the Arabic Philosophical Term "Anniyya"." Cahiers de Byrsa 6 (1956): 181-201.
- Gál Gedeon. "Geraldus Odonis on the Univocity of the Concept of Being." Franciscan Studies 52 (1992): 23-30.
- Gilson Étienne. Being and Some Philosophers. Toronto: Pontifical Insitute of Mediaeval Studies, 1952.
Secon edition corrected and enlarged (First edition 1949).
Contents: Preface VII-XI; I. On Being and the One 1; II. Being and Substance 41; III. Essence and Existence 74; V. Being and Existence 154; VI. Knowledge and Existence 190; Appendix - On Some
Difficulties of Interpretation 216; Index 233-235.
- Graham Angus Charles. "'Being' in Linguistics and Philosophy: A Preliminary Inquiry." Foundations of Language 1 (1965): 223-231.
- ———. "'Being' in Classical Chinese." In The Verb "Be" and Its Synonyms, edited by Verhaar, John W.M., 1-39. Dordrecht: Reidel Publishing, 1967.
Precedent version published as: Being in Western philosophy compared with shih/fei and yu/wu in Chinese philosophy - Asia Major (NS) 7 (1959) 79-112; reprinted in: A. C.
Graham - Studies in Chinese philosophy and philosophical literature Albany, State University of New York Press, 1990. pp. 322-359.
- Heidegger Martin. En Guise De Contribution À La Grammaire Et À L'étymologie Du Mot 'Être' (Introduction À La Métaphysique, Chap. Ii). Paris: Éditions
du Seuil, 2005.
Édité, traduit de l'allemand et commenté par Pascal David.
- Hugonnard-Roche Henri. "Le Vocabulaire Philosophique De L'être En Syriaque D'aprés Des Texts De Sergius De Res'aina Et Jacques D'édesse." In Arabic Theology,
Arabic Philosophy. From the Many to the One: Essays in Celebraion of Richard M. Frank, edited by Montgomery, James E., 101-125. Leuven: Peeters, 2006.
- Husain Martha. "The Question 'What Is Being' and Its Aristotelian Answer." New Scholasticism 50 (1976): 293-309.
"This paper takes its point of departure from a recent article by Joseph Owens: "The content of existence," (*) which argues that being is unknowable in terms of concepts since it either has all
cognitive (when contrasted with not-being) or none at all (when contrasted with beings). These dilemmas can be resolved by means of Aristotle's categories as the intrinsic formal structure of being,
and as constituting the cognitive content of being "qua" being. In terms of this cognitive content, being is conceptualized, becomes knowable, and can be meaningfully contrasted with both not-being
and beings. Beyond the resolution of Owens' dilemmas, the paper goes on to examine the need for meaningful contrasts in all knowledge as well as the adequacy and relevance of Aristotle's categories
in relation to modern science."
Joseph Owens - The content of existence - in: Milton K. Munitz (ed.) - Logic and ontology - New York, New York University Press 1973, pp.
- Jordan Mark D. "The Grammar of Esse. Re-Reading Thomas on the Transcendentals." Thomist 44 (1980): 1-26.
- Kagame Alexis. La Philosophie Bantu-Rwandaise De L'ëtre. Bruxelles: Éditions Duculout, 1956.
Reprinted in 1966 by Johnson Reprint Corp., New York.
- Kearney Richard. "Between Kant and Heidegger. The Moder Question of Being." In At the Heart of the Real. Philosophical Essays in Honour of the Most Reverend
Desmond Connell, Archbishop of Dublin, edited by O'Rourke, Fran. 271-283. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1992.
- Kenny Anthony. Aquinas on Being. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2002.
- Knuuttila Simo, and Hintikka Jaakko, eds. The Logic of Being. Historical Studies. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1986.
Table of contents: Acknowledgements VII; Introduction IX; Charles H. Kahn: Retrospect on the verb 'to be' and the concept of Being 1; Benson Mates: Identity and predication in Plato 29; Russell M.
Dancy: Aristotle and existence 49; Jaakko Hintikka: The varieties of Being in Aristotle 81; Sten Ebbesen: The Chimera's Diary 115; Klaus Jacobi: Peter Abelard's investigations into the meaning and
functions of the speech sign 'Est' 145; Hermann Weidemann: The logic of Being in Thomas Aquinas and John Duns Scotus 201; Simo Knuuttila: Being qua Being in Thomas Aquinas and John Duns Scotus 201;
Lilli Alanen: On Descartes' argument for dualism and the distinction between different kinds of Beings 223; Jaakko Hintikka: Kant on existence, predication, and the ontological argument 249; Leila
Haaparanta: On Frege's concept of Being 269; Index of names: 291; Index of subjects: 297-300.
- Llamzon Benjamin. "The Specification of 'Esse'; a Study in Bañez." Modern Schoolman 41 (1964): 123-144.
- Locker Ernst. "Etre Et Avoir. Leurs Expressions Dans Les Langues." Anthropos 49 (1954): 481-510.
- Maurer Armand. "Henry of Arclay's Question on the Univocity of Being." Mediaeval Studies 16 (1954): 18.
- ———. "Cajetan's Notion of Being in His Commentary on the Sentences." Mediaeval Studies 28 (1966): 268-278.
- Moro Andrea. Breve Storia Del Verbo Essere. Viaggio Al Centro Della Frase. Milano: Adelphi, 2010.
- Nasr Seyyed Hossein. "Post-Avicennan Islamic Philosophy and the Study of Being." International Philosophical Quarterly 17 (1977): 265-271.
"In this article, after a brief discussion of the position of Ibn Sina concerning the distinction between existence and essence, a survey is made of the views of later Islamic thinkers of various
schools including "Kalam", "Ishraqi" theosophy and theoretical sufism of the school of Ibn Arabi concerning ontology. The study culminates with Mulla Sadra who brought the discussion of being among
Muslim thinkers to full fruition. After this chronological survey, the distinction between the study of being in later Schools of Islamic thought and those of the West is made clear and it is shown
how despite a similar background, Islamic and Western thought part ways on this basic issue. Later Islamic students of ontology emphasized that the subject of philosophy is the study of the act of
existence, the "actus essendi", while Western thought became ever more concerned with the existent or "ens". In conclusion the relation between the theoretical study of being and practical and
operative spiritual methods for the realization of being in the Islamic world is indicated."
- Nijenhuis John. "'Ens' Described as 'Being or Existent'." American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 68 (1994): 1-14.
"A recent article in this quarterly about 'Aquinas on 'Exists',' opens with the statement, 'At the outset of On Being and Essence Aquinas distinguishes two senses of 'ens'
(being or existent).' (1) Here, this reader stops 'At the outset' and reflects: is it justifiable-speaking linguistically and metaphysically -- to offer two seemingly alternative if not even
synonymous renderings of the one Latin word 'ens,' viz., 'being' or (and/or) 'existent'?
The present writer belongs to the small chorus of language-sensitive medievalists who feel pressed to sing extra chorum because they have conclusive evidence that the
translation of the Latin esse (as also of the Greek einai) by the usual existence-terminology leads to a flawed interpretation of the
'onto-logical' thought world where use is made of the 'being'-term ens (and its Greek equivalent).
The basic issue is simple enough, but precisely because it is so simple and obvious it runs the risk of being overlooked. All I can do here is present a series of brief pointers toward the fateful
bifurcation of the Latin esse (and the Greek einai) into 'be(ing)' and 'exist(ence).' In doing this, I hope that an objective listing of the
pertinent facts which, in their roots, are of an unambiguous linguistic nature, will constitute an instance of that philosophical rhetoric which in the same issue of American
Catholic Philosophical Quarterly was called a 'technique of persuasion.' (2) pp. 89-90.
(1) Russell Panier and Thomas D. Sullivan, "Aquinas on 'Exists'," in American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 67, (1993), 247.
(2) id. p. 257.
- ———. "Existence Vs. Being: An All-Important Matter of Terminology." American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 69, no. 1 (1995): 89-95.
"In classical Latin, the verb esse, incompletely rendered by today's 'to be,' was the word expressing what today is divided over the verbs 'be' and 'exist.' As I quoted
Vlastos in reference to the similar situation in Greek ('Ens' described as 'Being or existent' 13), 'This kind of knowledge ... even a Greek child would have had. I
invited our contemporary philosophers 'to crawl under the linguistic thought-skin of adult Greek and Latin philosophers,' not perhaps in order to agree but at least to understand what they were
saying (and then, if they see fit, to disagree). When, by some mysterious process, the verb existere began to be used as the participle of esse, the inevitable apparently happened: the fuller meaning of esse, was gradually-and uncritically-transferred to existere.
The etymology of ex(s)istere yields a simple sense, namely, 'come out of,' 'appear' and 'be there,' indicating yes-or-no situations; consequently, the richer meaning of
Aquinas's esse (the verb) was fated to become flattened to indicate (rather than 'signify') the plain fact of 'exist(ence)' (often referred to by the new late-Latin noun
existentia, see n. 4). The mountainous landscape where Aquinas saw a rich variety of interconnected 'beings' was leveled to the flatland of isolated, barren existents; the
various depths of the existing beings came to be viewed as a conglomerate of unrelated, juxtaposed existents."
- O'Meara Dominic. "Being in Numenius and Plotinus. Some Points of Comparison." Phronesis.A Journal for Ancient Philosophy 21 (1976): 120-129.
Reprinted in: D. O' Meara - The structure of Being and the search for the Good. Essays on ancient and early medieval Platonism - Aldershot, Asgate Variorum, 1998 Essay
- ———. "La Question De L'être Et Du Non-Être Des Objets Mathématiques Chez Plotin Et Jamblique." Revue de Théologie et de Philosophie 122 (1990):
Reprinted in: D. O' Meara - The structure of Being and the search for the Good. Essays on ancient and early medieval Platonism - Aldershot, Asgate Variorum, 1998 Essay
- Owens Joseph. An Elementary Christian Metaphysics. Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Company, 1963.
Reprinted Houston, Center for Thomistic Studies, 1985.
- Pannier Russell, and Sullivan Thomas D. "Aquinas on 'Exists'." American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 67, no. 2 (1993): 157-166.
"At the outset of On Being and Essence Aquinas distinguishes two senses of "ens" (being or existent). This distinction furnishes a convenient
point of entry for his entire metaphysics. Aquinas is primarily concerned with "ens" in the first sense, roughly the sense we have in mind when we say something is real.
He points to a second, broader sense to ward off confusions. But if the meaning of the second sense is unclear, it will be all too easy to infer, as many seem to, that if something is a being in the
second sense, it must be a being in the first sense as well, albeit a rather shadowy one. For this reason we here shall propose an interpretation of Aquinas's second sense of "ens." As an aid to this clarification, we shall contrast Aquinas's second sense with the sense of "exists" articulated by Frege. Some philosophers claim that Aquinas's second sense
is identical to Frege's sense. We shall argue that, although logically related in certain contexts, the senses are nevertheless distinct. We shall note toward the end the significance of this second
sense for discussions of such topics as intentional in-existence." p. 157
See, e.g., G.E.M. Anscombe and P.T. Geach, Three Philosophers (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1961), p. 90; The Philosophy of Thomas
Aquinas:Introductory Readings, ed. by Christopher Martin (London & New York: Routledge, 1988), p. 49; Hermann Weidemann, "The Logic of Being in Thomas Aquinas," in The
Logic of Being: Historical Studies, ed. by Simo Knuuttila and laakko Hintikka (Dordrecht/Boston/Lancaster/Tokyo: D. Reidel, 1986), pp. 81-200, especially p. 182.
- ———. "Being, Existence and the Future of Thomistic Studies: A Reply to Professor Nijenhuis." American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 69, no. 1
"Our aim is to explain as briefly as we can (1) why there is good reason to use 'existence-terminology,' and (2) why some considerations against it, including what we take to be Professor Nijenhuis's
main reasons, should not deter us. In the course of discussing these points we also will indicate why any of this matters for the future of Thomistic studies.
The first reason to permit oneself to use 'existent' or 'existing thing' for 'ens' is that fine dictionaries such as The New Shorter Oxford and The
American Heritage (to take a couple at hand) give 'existence' as the first entry under 'being.' That, no doubt, is why translators commonly use 'existence-terminology.' Professor Nijenhuis
acknowledges that dictionaries inter-define being and existence and that translators follow suit, but he thinks that both err. Maybe so, but it seems quite clear who bears the onus probandi.
The second reason, often neglected by proponents of 'being-terminology,' is that if we refuse to allow that when Aquinas talks in terms of 'ens' and 'esse' he is
talking in one way or another about existing things and about existence, we have no way of comparing Aquinas on existence with anyone who talks about existence. To insist that Aquinas is not talking
about the same topic as Frege, Russell, Quine and others because 'ens,' 'esse' and the like are to be translated only in terms of 'being' is to beg some pretty big questions and to seal off Aquinas's
thought from the contemporary world of ideas. No doubt some feel that it is more important to understand Aquinas in light of predecessors such as Clarenbald of Arras than Frege, but it seems to us
that unless at some point we are willing to consider how Aquinas's thought holds up when examined with the best contemporary work in mind, we will certainly not have served Aquinas or philosophy
well." pp. 83-84.
- Paprzycka Katarzyna. "Carnap and Leibniz on the Problem of Being." In Possible Ontologies, edited by Augustynek, Zdzislaw and Jadacki, Jacek Juliusz.
163-177. Rodopi: Amsterdam, 1993.
"The title of the present paper appears provocative as it brings together one of the most prominent fighters of metaphysics, R. Carnap, a famous metaphysician and a very difficult metaphysical
problem. In fact, Leibniz, whose stance on that very issue we have chosen to relate to that of Carnap's, has not written about the problem of being explicitly either. We will thus ask the reader for
some patience as we will try to demonstrate that they both do so implicitly.
Our task is perhaps even more complex with respect to Carnap for aside of being an extraordinarily consistent and systematic thinker, he has also been very self-conscious methodologically. It is
remarkable that the system of Aufbau, to which we will restrict our attention, was supposed to be a mere illustration of some methodological principles developed in the
so-called construction theory. Accordingly, almost none of the moves in his system lacks a justification. As a result, there are not too many degrees of interpreter's freedom." (p. 163)
- Pécharman Martine. "Le Vocabulaire De L'être Dans La Philosophie Première: Ens, Esse, Essentia." In Hobbes Et Son
Vocabulaire, edited by Zarka, Yves Charles. 31-59. Paris: Vrin, 1992.
- Price Robert. "Richard of Middleton O.F.M. On 'Esse and Essence'." Franciscan Studies 30 (1970): 49-76.
- Principe Walter H. Alexander of Hales' Theology of the Hypostatic Union. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1967.
See Chapter I. The Philosophical Background (pp. 21-72), in particular § 2. Ens, Esse, and Existere (pp. 23-42).
- Rijk Lambertus Maria de. "Boèce Logicien Et Philosophe: Ses Positions Sémantiques Et Sa Métaphysique De L'ëtre." In Atti Del Congresso Internazionale Di Studi
Boeziani (Pavia, 5-8 Ottobre 1980), edited by Obertello, Luca. 141-156. Roma: Herder, 1981.
- Rosen Stanley. "Is Metaphysics Possible?". Review of Metaphysics 45 (1991): 235-257.
- Schnädelbach Herbert. "Being." In Philosophy in Germany 1831-1933. 192-218. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
"If, in what follows under the general title of 'Being', we are to give an outline of the rebirth of metaphysics as ontology, we cannot avoid giving an account in detail of the various ontological
projects of that time. What is to be clarified can be described as a rehabilitation of the 'problem of being' as a genuinely philosophical problem. This 'problem of being' must obviously be posed in
such a way that it cannot be solved by any of the procedures of the empirical sciences; otherwise, any philosophical theory of being would be superfluous. On the other hand, the 'problem of being'
should also not be reducible to the problem of knowledge, as the whole of Criticism had taught, since then the attempt to break out of the epistemological ghetto would fail. A third general
condition, accepted by all the new ontologists, is that modern ontology should not proceed in a dogmatic fashion in Kant's sense; this also rules out simple reference back to pre-Kantian traditions.
The rehabilitation of philosophy as theory of knowledge also remains decisive for the new ontology, to the extent that it regards an epistemological self-justification as absolutely indispensable.
The priority of the question of being over that of knowledge, which is the general characteristic of the new ontology, should itself he seen as the result of epistemological reflection: since the
time of Lotze, the argument that the subject is him: self an existent and the knowledge-relation a relation of, being had played a central role in that connexion. In Hegel's words, the new ontology
saw itself as an immanent critique of epistemology, not as its simple opposite. The success of this critique was then felt as the great liberation 'to things themselves'." (pp. 194-195)
- Schönberger Rolf. Die Transformation Des Klassischen Seinsverständnisses. Studien Zur Vorgeschiche Des Neuzeitlichen Seinsbegriffs Im Mittelalter.
Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1986.
- Seigfried Hans. "Kant's Thesis About Being Anticipated by Suarez." In Proceedings of the Third International Kant Congress, edited by Beck, Leslie.
510-520. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1972.
- Simons Peter M:. "L'être: Une Petite Histoire Autrichienne." In La Philosophie Autrichienne De Bolzano À Musil, edited by Cometti, Jean-Pierre and
Mulligan, Kevin. 29-42. Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 2001.
- Sprung Mervyn, ed. The Question of Being. East-West Perspectives. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1978.
Each chapter in this book (except the first) originated at a symposium arranged by the philosophy department of Brock University, St. Catherines, Ontario.
Contents: Mervyn Sprung: The Question of Being as comparative philosophy 1; Some Western Perspectives: Joseph Owens: Being in early Western tradition 17; Charles H. Kahn: Linguistic relativism and
the Greek project of ontology 31; Hans Georg Gadamer: Plato and Heidegger 45; Zygmunt Adamczewski: Questions in Heidegger's thought about Being 55; Robert C. Schaff: Heidegger's path of thinking and
the Way of Meditation in the early Upanisads 67; Some eastern perspectives: Wilhelm Halbfass: On Being and What There Is: Indian perspectives on the Question of Being 95; J. G. Arapura: Some special
characteristics of Sat (Being) in Advaita Vedanta 111; Mervyn Sprung: Being and the Middle Way 127; Jitendra Nath Mohanty: Some aspects of Indian thinking on Being 141;
- Szaif Jan. Der Sinn Von "Sein": Grundlinien Einer Rekonstruktion Des Philosophischen Begriffs Des Seienden. Freiburg: Alber, 2003.
Inhalt: Vorbemerkung 7;
Der Sinn von "sein". Grundlinien einer Rekonstruktion des philosophischen Begriffs des Seienden. Einleitung 13
Gibt es eine philosophisch relevante Antwort auf die Frage nach dem Sinn von "sein"?
a) Die Formulierung der ontologischen Grundfrage als Frage nach dem Sinn von "sein" 16; b) Zur Geschichte der ontologischen Grundfrage 18; c) Die Zielsetzung der Wiederaufnahme der ontologischen
Grundfrage 20; d) Ergänzende Bemerkungen zur Methode 22; e) Vier semantische Grundfunktionen von "sein": i) Die Kopula als "offene Prädikatsform" 25; ii) Das "ist" in identifizierenden Aussagen 32;
iii) Existenz 32; iv) Veritatives Sein 37; f) Die Antwort: Der Sinn von "sein" -- eine in aller gegenständlichen Bezugnahme immer schon vorausgesetzte semantische Verweisungsstruktur 39; g) Ist diese
Sinnstruktur nur ein sprachgeschichtlicher Zufall? 45;
Die mögliche Rolle der ontologischen Grundfrage für eine (heute noch durchführbare) Metaphysik
a) Das Problem der thematischen Eingrenzung der Metaphysik als philosophischer Disziplin 47; b) Metaphysik als "transphysica" - zwei Deutungstypen 49; c) Die Differenz von
positionalem und formalem Seinssinn als Grund zweier fundamentaler ontologischer Fragedimensionen 52; d) Die Entfaltung der ontologischen Grundfrage als Organisationsprinzip für eine philosophische
Metaphysik; die Rolle erkenntnis- und sprachkritischer Erörterungen 56; e) Das Verhältnis der ontologisch-metaphysischen Fragestellung zu anderen philosophischen Grundfragen 65; Anmerkungen 72;
Ernst Tugendhat über die 'Seinsfrage' als fundamentalphilosophische Fragestellung 91
- Thom Paul. "The Pervasiveness of Being." In Presocratic Philosophy. Essays in Honour of Alexander Mourelatos, edited by Caston, Victor and Graham,
Daniel W., 293-302. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002.
"The pervasiveness of Being is the doctrine that everything is. This doctrine would he false if something was not. That being is pervasive is not a trivial claim. An ontology might he motivated by
the desire to quantify over non-beings in such a way that we can say that something is a flying man without implying that some being is a
flying man. If such a distinction is allowed, then it might be thought that something is not, even though no being is not. Pervasiveness then would be true for beings but
not for 'somethings.'
This chapter explores the different positions that philosophers from Parmenides to Aristotle take on the question of the pervasiveness of Being, and traces some of the relations linking those
positions to one another."
- Verhaar John W.M., ed. The Verb 'Be' and Its Synonyms. Philosophical and Grammatical Studies. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1967.
Part I: Classical Chinese. Athapaskan. Mundari, 1967, pp. viii+100; Part II: Eskimo Hindi. Zuni. Modern Greek. Malayalam. Kurukh. 1968, pp. ix+
148; Part III: Japanese. Kashmiri. Armenian. Hungarian. Sumerian. Shona. 1968, pp. viii+ 125; Part IV: Twi. Modern Chinese. Arabic. 1969, pp.
viii+ 125; Part V: 1972, pp. vii+ 232; Part VI: The Verb 'Be' in Ancient Greek. By Charles H. Kahn. 1973, pp. xxxiii+ 486.
- Zaslawsky Denis. Analyse De L'être. Essai De Philosophie Analytique. Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1982.