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Christian Wolff's Metaphysical Works: An Annotated Bibliography

A SELECTION OF WOLFF'S METAPHYSICAL WORKS

A complete bibliography of the works by Christian Wolff can be found in:

École Jean. La métaphysique de Christian Wolff. Hildesheim: Georg Olms 1990.

Bibliographie des œuvres de Christian Wolff. In Jus Naturae. Edited by Thomann Marcel. Hildesheim: Georg Olms 1972. pp. LXV-LXXXI.

The Gesammelte Werke [= GW] by Christian Wolff are published in three series (German [22 volumes in 30 tomes, 1965-1983], Latin [37 volumes in 42 tomes, 1962-1983] and Materials under the direction of Jean École (for the philosophical works) by Georg Olms, Hildesheim; the following is a list of the most important metaphysical works.

  1. Wolff, Christian. 1712. Vernünftige Gedanken Von Den Kräfften Des Menschlichen Verstandes (Deutsche Logik). Halle.

    Reprint of the 1754 edition by Hans Werner Arndt (1965).

  2. ———. 1719. Vernünfftige Gedanken Von Gott, Der Welt Und Der Seele Des Menschen, Auch Allen Dingen Überhaupt (Deutsche Metaphysik). Frankfurt-Lipsia.

    Reprint of the 1751 edition with an introduction by Charles A. Corr (1983).

  3. ———. 1724. Anmerkungen Über Die Vernünftige Gedanken Von Gott, Der Welt Und Der Seele Des Menschen. Frankfurt.

    Reprint of the 1740 edition with an introduction by Charles A. Corr (1983).

  4. ———. 1728. Philosophia Rationalis Sive Logica (Latin Logic). Praemittitur Discursus Praeliminaris De Philosophia in Genere. Frankfurt-Lipsia.

    Reprint of the 1740 edition with introduction, notes and index by Jean École (1983).

  5. ———. 1730. Philosophia Prima, Sive Ontologia (Latin Metaphysics). Frankfurt-Lipsia.

    Reprint of the 1736 edition by Jean École (1962).

  6. ———. 1731. Cosmologia Generalis. Frankfurt-Lipsia.

    Reprint of the 1737 edition with an introduction by Jean École (1964).

  7. ———. 1732. Psychologia Empirica. Frankfurt-Lipsia.

    Reprint of the 1738 edition by Jean École (1968).

  8. ———. 1734. Psychologia Rationalis. Frankfurt-Lipsia.

    Reprint of the 1740 edition with introduction, notes and index by Jean École (1972).

  9. ———. 1736. Theologia Naturalis. Pars Prior, Integrum Systema Complectens, Qua Existentia Et Attributa Dei a Posteriori Demonstrantur. Frankfurt-Lipsia.

    Reprint of the 1739 edition with introduction, notes and index by Jean École (1978).

  10. ———. 1737. Theologia Naturalis. Pars Posterior Qua Existentia Et Attributa Dei Ex Notione Entis Perfectissimi Et Natura Animae Demonstrantur, Et Atheismi, Deismi, Fatalismi, Naturalismi, Spinosismi, Aliorumque De Deo Errorum Fundamenta Subvertuntur. Frankfurt-Lipsia.

    Reprint of the 1741 edition with introduction, notes and index by Jean École (1981).

  11. ———. 1738. Philosophia Practica Universalis, Pars Prior. Frankfurt-Lipsia.

    Reprint of the 1738 edition with introduction, notes and index by Jean École (1971).

  12. ———. 1739. Philosophia Practica Universalis, Pars Posterior. Frankfurt-Lipsia.

    With a Postscrit by Winfried Lenders (1979).

  13. ———. 1750. Philosophia Moralis, Sive Ethica. Halle.

    Second volume 1753. With a Postscrit by Winfried Lenders (two volumes, 1970-1973).

  14. ———. 1729. Horae Subsecivae Marburgenses. Frankfurt.

    Reprint in three volumes of the edition: Frankfurt 1729, Leipzig 1732, Renger 1735, with an introduction (pp. V-CXXXVIII) by Jean École (1983).

  15. ———. 1983. Opuscula Metaphysica. De Differentia Nexus Rerum Sapientis Et Fatalis Necessitatis, Nec Non Systematis Harmoniae Praestabilitae Et Hypothesium Spinosae Luculenta Commentatio, in Qua Simul Genuina Dei Existentiam Demonstrandi Ratio Expenditur Et Multa Religionis Naturalis Capita Illustrantur. - Monitum Ad Commentationem Luculentam De Differentia Nexus Rerum Sapientis Et Fatalis Necessitatis, Quo Nonnulla Sublimia Metaphysicae Ac Theologiae Naturalis Capita Illustrantur. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    Critical edition with introduction, notes and index by Jean École.

TRANSLATIONS

ENGLISH

  1. Wolff, Christian. 2003. Logic, or Rational Thoughts on the Powers of the Human Understanding with Their Use and Application in the Knowledge and Search of Truth, Translated from the German of Baron Wolfius, to Which Is Prefixed a Life of the Author. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    Reprint of the original edition of 1770.

  2. ———. 1963. Preliminary Discourse on Philosophy in General. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.

    Translated with an introduction and notes by Richard J. Blackwell.

    Contents: Introduction VII; Selected bibliography XV-XVIII; Chapter One: The thre types of human knowledge: history, philosophy, and mathematics 3; Chapter Two: Philosophy in general 17; Chapter Three: The parts of philosophy 33; Chapter Four: The method of philosophy 59. Chapter Five: The style of philosophy 79; Chapter Six: The freedom to philosophize 88; Index 121-122.

  3. ———. 1966. "Selections from Reasonable Thoughts on God, the Word, the Soul of Man, and Things in General." In Eighteenth-Century Philosophy, edited by Beck, Lewis White, 217-222. New York: Free Press.

FRENCH

  1. ———. 1736. Logique. Ou Réflexions Sur Les Forces De L'entendment Humain, Et Sur Leur Légitime Usage, Dans La Connaissance De La Vérité. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    Traduite de l'Allemand sur la cinquième édition, et revue sur toutes les suivantes. Reprint 2000.

  2. ———. 2005. "La Pensée Esthétique De Christian Wolff (Extraits De La Psychologia Empirica)." In Aux Sources De L'ésthétique, Les Débuts De L'ésthétique Philosophique, edited by Goubet, Jean-François and Raulet, Gérard, 80-99. Edition de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme.

  3. ———. 2006. Discours Préliminaire Sur La Philosophie En Général. Paris: Vrin.

    Introduction, traduction et notes sous la direction de Th. Arnaud, W. Feuferhahn, J.-F. Goubet et J.-M. Rohrbasser.

ITALIAN

  1. ———. 1968. "L'illuminismo Tedesco. II. Christian Wolff." In Grande Antologia Filosofica. Parte IV. Il Pensiero Moderno, 1395-1438. Milano: Marzorati.

    Antologia di testi scelti da Bruno Bianco.

  2. ———. 1978. Logica Tedesca. Bologna: Patron.

    Traduzione di Raffaele Ciafardone.

    Nuova edizione Milano, Bompiani, 2011.

  3. ———. 1999. Metafisica Tedesca. Milano: Rusconi.

    Testo originale a fronte e traduzione italiana di Raffaele Ciafardone.

  4. ———. 2003. Metafisica Tedesca Con Le Annotazioni Alla Metafisica Tedesca. Milano: Bompiani.

    Testo originale a fronte e traduzione italiana di Raffaele Ciafardone.

SPANISH

  1. ———. 2000. Pensamientos Racionales Acerca De Dios, El Mundo Y El Alma Del Hombre, Así Como Sobre Todas Las Cosas En General (Metafísica Alemana). Madrid: Akal Ediciones.

GERMAN TRANSLATIONS OF THE LATIN WORKS

  1. ———. 1996. Einleitende Abhandlung Über Philosophie Im Allgemeinen. Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog.

    Critical edition of the Latin text with an introduction and a German translation by Günter Gawlick and Lothar Kreimendah.

  2. ———. 2005. Erste Philosophie Oder Ontologie. Lateinisch-Deutsch. Hamburg: Meiner.

    Latin text and German translation of the Introduction and the First and Second Chapters (until § 78) by Dirk Effertz.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A complete bibliography (1305 titles) can be found in:

Biller Gerhard. Wolff nach Kant. Eine Bibliographie. Hildesheim: Georg Olms 2004, with a preface by Jean École (Second updated edition 2009).

This is a selection of studies about Wolff's metaphysics; for the contributions by Jean École see the Bibliographie choisise de Jean École (in French) 1961-1982 and 1984-2008 (with extensive abstracts).

  1. "Nuovi Studi Sul Pensiero Di Christian Wolff." 1989. Il Cannocchiale.Rivista di Studi Filosofici no. 2-3.

    Reprinted as a volume with a preface by Jean École, Hildesheim, Georg Olms, 1992.

    Contents: Introduzione 3; I. Sistema e metodo. Ferdinando L. Marcolungo: Wolff e il problema del metodo 11; Werner Schneiders: Christian Wolff über Verstand und Vernunft 39; Cornelis-Anthonie van Peursen: Cognitio symbolica in the philosophy of Christian Wolff 61; Günther Mühlpfordt: Die organischen Naturwissenschaften in Wolffs empiriorationalischer Enzyklopädistik 77; Luigi Cataldi Madonna: Wolff, Bolzano e la probabilità 107; II: Filosofia teoretica. Sonia Carboncini: L'ontologia di Wolff tra scolastica e cartesianesimo 131; Jean École: La notion d'être selon Wolff ou la "Désexistentialisation de l'essence" 157; Hans Werner Arndt: Zu Christian Wolffs Theorie möglicher Welten 175; Hans-Jürgen Engfer: Von der leibnizischen Monadologie zur empirischen Psychologie Wolffs 193; III: Filosofia pratica. Eberhard Günther Schulz: Wolffs Moralprinzip und Kants kategorischer Imperativ 217; Michael Albrecht: Die Tugend und die Chinesen. Antworten von Christian Wolff und die Frage nach dem Verhältnis zwischen Religion und Moral 239; Cornelia Buschmann: Gesellschaft und Geschichte als philosophisches Problem bei Christian Wolff 263-284.

    "Ce recueil est la reprise du numéro spécial que la revue Il Cannochiale a consacré à Wolff en 1989 (n0 2-3), à l'initiative de deux jeunes chercheurs italiens: Sonia Carboncini et Luigi Cataldi Madonna.(...).

    Il a trouvé tout naturellement sa place dans la troisième série de notre réédition des Gesammelte Werke de Wolff qui, à côté des études les plus importantes publiées de son temps, en contiennent d'autres plus récentes. Car il est composé de douze articles aussi intéressants que variés répartis en trois sections intitulées: Le système et la méthode, La philosophie théorique, La philosophie pratique. Sept ont trait à sa métaphysique, deux à sa morale, les trois autres respectivement à sa méthode, à sa physique et à sa conception de la société. Le tout est précédé d'une introduction dans laquelle Sonia Carboncini et Luigi Cataldi Madonna retracent l'histoire de cette réédition et celle de la partie philosophique de son oeuvre, dont ils présentent de façon claire et précise les grandes lignes dans leurs rapports avec celles de ses prédécesseurs et de ses successeurs.

    Ces articles, qui ont pour auteurs sept allemands, trois italiens, un hollandais et un français, appartenant à des horizons philosophiques fort différents, attestent que l'actuel regain d'intérêt pour la pensée de Wolff n'est pas seulement le fait de quelques rares spécialistes isolés. Et l'on peut voir là le signe qu'après avoir été éclipsée par la philosophie kantienne et postkantienne, celle de Wolff, sans jamais plus connaître l'énorme succès qu'elle eut de son vivant et immédiatement après sa mort, est enfin en train de trouver sa juste place dans l'histoire des idées.

    C'est en tous les cas grâce à de tels travaux qu'elle y parviendra pleinement. Et il est à souhaiter qu'ils continuent à se multiplier, afin qu'elle soit de mieux en mieux connue et qu'en particulier, pour ce qui ce du domaine métaphysique, 'on cesse d'en parler à partir des critiques de Kant qui ne connaissait guère celui-ci qu'a travers les exposés trop succincts et souvent déformants des Wolffiens infidèles que sont Baumgarten, Baumeister et Gottsched."

    Et c'est dire que le champ des recherches sur Wolff, loin d'être clos, reste largement ouvert, d'autant que son oeuvre est immense et véritablement encyclopédique."

    From the Preface by Jean École.

  2. "Wolff Et La Métaphysique." 2002. Archives de Philosophie no. 65.

  3. "Christian Wolff." 2003. Revue Philosophique de la France et de l'Étranger no. 128.

    Jean-François Goubet: Psychologie et métaphysique. Autour de Christian Wolff 275; Wolf Fueuerhahn: Entre métaphysique, mathématique, optique et physiologie: la psychométrie au XVIIIe siècle 279; Faustino Fabbianelli: Leibniz, Budde et Wolff. Trois modèles de théodicée 293; Jean-Paul Paccioni: Wolff, l'expérience et la raison non pure 307; Thierry Arnaud: Dans quelle mesure l'Ontologie est-elle fondamentale dans la Métaphysique allemande de Wolff? 323; Jean-François Goubet: Force et facultés de l'âme dans la Métaphysique allemande de Wolff 337; Olivier-Pierre Rudolph: Mémoire, réflexion et conscience chez Christian Wolff 351-360.

  4. "Christian Wolff Et La Pensée Encyclopédique Européenne. Autour Du Discours Préliminaire Sur La Philosophie En Général." 2008. Lumières no. 12.

  5. Anderson, R.Lanier. 2008. "The Wolffian Paradigm and Its Discontents: Kant's Containment Definition of Analyticity in Historical Context." Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie no. 87:22-74.

    "I defend Kant's definition of analyticity in terms of concept "containment", which has engendered widespread skepticism. Kant deployed a clear, technical notion of containment based on ideas standard within traditional logic, notably genus/species hierarchies formed via logical division. Kant's analytic/synthetic distinction thereby undermines the logico-metaphysical system of Christian Wolff, showing that the Wolffian paradigm lacks the expressive power even to represent essential knowledge, including elementary mathematics, and so cannot provide an adequate system of philosophy. The results clarify the extent to which analyticity sensu Kant can illuminate the problem of a priori knowledge generally."

  6. Arnaud, Thierry. 2002. "Le Critère Du Métaphysique Chez Wolff: Pourquoi Une Psychologie Empirique Au Sein De La Métaphysique?" Archives de Philosophie no. 65:35-46.

  7. ———. 2003. "Dans Quelle Mesure L'ontologie Est-Elle Fondamentale Dans La Métaphysique Allemande De Wolff?" Revue Philosophique de la France et de l'Étranger no. 128:323-336.

    "The first chapter of the German Metaphysics gathers only nine paragraphs and seems to represent but some kind of a preamble. Hence one may feel that metaphysics begins only with paragraph 10 opening the ontological part of the text with the contradiction principle.

    Yet Wolff already mentions a few considerations in this first part that are extremely close to the beginning of his philosophy: he presents from the start something very similar to a cogito. Moreover the assets of this first chapter are recaptured whenever every one of the five following chapters opens. Would there be therein sufficient matter at stake to evidence that the Wolffian Metaphysics is grounded in a psychological experience?

    Hence the author tests here such a hypothesis through the successive analysis of the status of Ontology, of Logics and of empirical Psychology, through a joint reading of the German Metaphysics and of the German Logics."

  8. ———. 2004. "Où Commence La Métaphysique Allemande De Christian Wolff?" In Die Psychologie Christian Wolffs. Systematische Und Historische Untersuchungen, edited by Rudolph, Oliver-Pierre and Goubet, Jean-François, 63-76. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

  9. Arndt, Hans Werner. 1971. Methodo Scientifica Pertractatum. Mos Geometricus Und Kalkülbegriff in Der Philosophischen Theorienbildung Des 17. Und 18. Jahrhunderts. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

    See Chapter V: 'Methodus scientifica' und 'Mathesis Universalis' in der Methodenlehre Christian Wolffs pp. 125-147.

  10. ———. 1979. "Die Semiotik Christian Wolffs Als Propädeutik Der Ars Characteristica Combinatoria Und Der Ars Inveniendi." Zeitschrift für Semiotik no. 1:325-331.

  11. ———. 1983. "Rationalismus Und Empirismus in Der Erkenntnislehre Christian Wolffs." In Christian Wolff 1679-1754. Interpretationen Zu Seiner Philosophie Und Deren Wirkung Mit Einer Bibliographie Der Wolff-Literatur, edited by Schneiders, Werner, 31-47. Hamburg: Meiner.

    Reprinted in: J. École (ed.) - Autour de la philosophie wolfienne - pp. 11-27.

  12. ———. 1989. "Zu Christian Wolffs Theorie Möglicher Welten." Il Cannocchiale.Rivista di Studi Filosofici no. 2-3:175-191.

    Reprinted in: S. Carboncini, L. Cataldi Madonna (eds.) - Nuovi studi sul pensiero di Christian Wolff - Hildesheim, Georg Olms, 1989

  13. ———. 1995. "Zum Wahrheitsanspruch Der Nominaldefinition in Der Erkenntnistheorie Und Metaphysik Christian Wolffs." In De Christian Wolff À Louis Lavelle. Métaphysique Et Histoire De La Philosophie. Recueil En Hommage À Jean École À L'occasion De Son 75 Anniversaire, edited by Theis, Robert and Weber, Claude, 34-46. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

  14. Arndt, Hans Werner, Carboncini-Gavanelli, Sonia, and École, Jean, eds. 2001. Autour De La Philosophie Wolffienne. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

  15. Barber, William Henry. 1955. Leibniz in France. From Arnauld to Voltaire. A Study in French Reactions to Leibinizianism. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    See: Christian wolff and his followers pp. 123-140 (reprint: New York, Garland, 1985).

  16. Beck, Lewis White. 1969. Early German Philosophy. Kant and His Predecessors.

    Chapter XI: Two founders of the German Enlghtnement 243; Thomasius 247; Wolff 256; Chapter XII: A generation of epigoni 276-305.

    Reprinted Bristol. Thoemmes Press, 1966.

  17. ———. 1993. "From Leibniz to Kant." In The Routledge History of Philosophy. Volume Vi: The Age of German Idealism, edited by Solomon, Robert C. and Higgins, Kathleen M., 5-39. New York: Routledge.

    On Wolff see pp. 7-15

  18. Biller, Gerhard. 1986. "Die Wolff-Diskussion 1800 Bis 1985. Eine Bibliographie." In Christian Wolff 1679-1754. Interpretationen Zu Seiner Philosophie Und Deren Wirkung Mit Einer Bibliographie Der Wolff-Literatur, edited by Schneiders, Werner, 321-346. Hamburg: F. Meiner.

    Second edition (First edition 1983)

  19. ———. 2004. Wolff Nach Kant. Eine Bibliographie. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    With a preface by Jean École

  20. Blackwell, Richard. 1961. "The Structure of Wolffian Philosophy." Modern Schoolman no. 38:203-218.

  21. ———. 1961. "Christian Wolff's Doctrine of the Soul." Journal of the History of Ideas no. 22:339-354.

  22. Bouton, Christophe. 2000. "Ontologie Et Logique Dans L'interprétation Hégélienne De Christian Wolff." Études Philosophiques:241-260.

  23. Bruna, María Jesús Soto. 1991. "El Significado De La Monadologia Leibniciana En Christian Wolff." Anuario Filosofico no. 24:349-366.

    "Christian Wolff's understanding of Leibniz's monadology, framed out from his own underlying philosophical principles, had a definite and direct influence on the Eighteenth-century new elaboration of the "physical monad" theory."

  24. Buchenau, Stephanie. 2004. "Sinnlichkeit Als Erkenntnisvermögen. Zum Begriff Der Vernunftähnlichen in Der Psychologie Christian Wolffs." In Die Psychologie Christian Wolffs. Systematische Und Historische Untersuchungen, edited by Rudolph, Oliver-Pierre and Goubet, Jean-François, 197-212. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

  25. Burns, John V. 1966. Dynamism in the Cosmology of Christian Wolff. A Study in Pre-Critical Rationalism. New York: Exposition Press.

    Contents: Introduction 9; I. Substance 17; II. Bodies 51; III. The elements 83; IV Conclusion 101; Bibliography 111; Index of proper names 115; Subject index 117-122.

    "Dynamsim is the theory that bodies are composed of inextended points of force. In the manuals of Scholastic philosophy this theory is listed and refuted as a fallacious attempt to account for the constitution of bodies by explaining away matter. The theory of Dynamism "culminates in the system of Leibniz, who reduced corporeal substance to units of a spiritual character (monads) analogous to souls. For Leibniz, extension, indeed sensible reality as a whole, is nothing more than an appearance or a symbol, and the corporeal world as such is absorbed in the spiritual.." (1)

    In this analysis it is our intention to present a study of Christian Wolff's dynamic theory of substance and in particular his metaphysical foundations of the material universe.

    To realize this purpose we intend first to treat Wolff's notion of (a) substance, (b) simple substance and its characteristics, and (c) composed being or compound substance and its characteristics, especially as these are in contrast with the characteristics of simple substance.

    The second chapter will deal with bodies and their apparent constituents: matter and motor force, as these are explained by Christian Wolff.

    The third chapter will be devoted to the "elements," which Wolff contends are the true and ultimate constituent principles of bodies." p. 17

    (1) Jacques Maritain, An Introduction to Philosophy, trans. E. I. Watkin (New York: Sheed and Ward, n.d. [1931]), p. 166.

  26. Campo, Mariano. 1939. Cristiano Wolff E Il Razionalismo Precritico. Milano: Vita e Pensiero.

    Two volumes. Reprint in one volume: Hildesheim, Georg Olms, 1980

  27. Camposampiero Favaretti, Matteo. 2009. Conoscenza Simbolica. Pensiero E Linguaggio in Christian Wolff E Nella Prima Età Moderna. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

  28. Capozzi, Mirella. 1982. "Sillogismi E Proposizioni Singolari: Due Aspetti Della Critica Di Wolff a Leibniz." In La Grammatica Del Pensiero. Logica, Linguaggio E Conoscenza Nell'età Dell'illuminismo, edited by Buzzetti, Dino and Ferriani, Maurizio, 103-150. Bologna: Il Mulino.

  29. ———. 2006. "Biangoli Rettilinei E Centauri: L'ontologia Di Wolff E Meinong." In Le Ragioni Del Conoscere E Dell'agire. Scritti in Onore Di Rosaria Egidi, edited by Calcaterra, Rosa, 44-56. Milano: Franco Angeli.

  30. Carboncini, Sonia. 1989. "L'ontologia Di Wolff Tra Scolastica E Cartesianesimo." Il Cannocchiale.Rivista di Studi Filosofici (2-3):131-155.

    Reprinted in: Jean École (ed.) - Autour de la philosophie Wolffienne - Hildesheim, Georg Olms, 2001.

  31. ———. 1991. Transzendentale Wahrheit Und Traum. Christian Wolffs Antwort Auf Die Herausforderung Durch Den Cartesianischen Zweifel. Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog.

  32. Cataldi Madonna, Luigi. 1984. "La Metodologia Empirica Di Christian Wolff." Il Cannocchiale.Rivista di Studi Filosofici no. 1-2:59-93.

    Reprinted in: L. Cataldi Madonna - Christian Wolff und das System des klassisschen Rationalismus. Die 'philosophia experimentalis universalis' - pp. 12-46.

  33. ———. 1994. "Christian Wolff E L'ermeneutica Filosofica Dell'illuminismo Tedesco." Intersezioni.Rivista di Storia delle Idee no. 14:393-414.

    Reprinted in: L. Cataldi Madonna - Christian Wolff und das System des klassisschen Rationalismus. Die 'philosophia experimentalis universalis' - pp. 175-196.

  34. ———. 1999. "Il Connubio Della Ragione Con L'esperienza Come Fondamento E Scopo Del Programma Filosofico Wolffiano." In La Filosofia Pratica Tra Metafisica E Antropologia Nell'età Di Wolff E Vico, edited by Cacciatore, Giuseppe, Gessa-Kurotschka, Vanna, Poser, Hans and Sanna, Manuela, 111-129. Napoli: Guida.

    Atti del Convegno Internazionale, Napoli, 2-5 aprile 1997.

  35. ———. 1999. "Teoria E Critica Della Ragione Nella Filosofia Di Christian Wolff." Studi Settecenteschi no. 19:9-34.

    Reprinted in: L. Cataldi Madonna - Christian Wolff und das System des klassisschen Rationalismus. Die 'philosophia experimentalis universalis' - pp. 230-255.

  36. ———. 2001. Christian Wolff Und Das System Des Klassischen Rationalismus: Die 'Philosophia Experimentalis Universalis' / Christian Wolff E Il Sistema Del Razionalismo Classico: La Philosophia Experimentalis Universalis. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

  37. ———, ed. 2005. Macht Und Bescheidenheit Der Vernunft. Beiträge Zur Philosophie Christian Wolffs. Gedenkband Für Hans Werner Arndt. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

  38. ———, ed. 2005. Wolffiana I: Macht Und Bescheidenheit Der Vernunft. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    Beiträge zur Philosophie Christian Wolffs. Gedenkband für Hans Werner Arndt, mit acht Rariora.

    Vorwort; Hans Werner Arndt: Nachruf; Einleitung; Ehrenpromotion von Jean École; Plenums- und Abendvorträge.

    "Christian Wolff to whom Hans Werner Arndt devoted an important part of his life's work provides the thematic frame for this collection of commemorative essays. The articles deal with the role Wolff played in the history of philosophy, and various aspects of his metaphysics, logic, epistemology and practical philosophy. Thus, the collection becomes part of the Wolff revival initiated by Hans Werner Arndt about two decades ago.

    The authors, who share Arndt's commitment to the German philosopher, pay tribute to Arndt for the rediscovery of Christian Wolff and his work, which he made available to philosophical research.

    The supplement of this volume consists of eight lesser-known essays by Arndt. They are to demonstrate the scope of his interest in philosophy, which went far beyond Christian Wolff."

  39. Ciafardone, Raffaele. 1978. L'illuminismo Tedesco. Metodo Filosofico E Premesse Etico-Teologiche. Rieti: Il Velino.

    Chapter IV: Ragione ed esperienza in Christian Wolff pp. 89-114; Appendix: Christian Wolff pp. 236-251.

  40. ———. 1983. "Von Der Kritik an Wolff Zum Vortkritischen Kant. Wolff-Kritik Bei Rüdiger Und Crusius." In Christian Wolff 1679-1754. Interpretationen Zu Seiner Philosophie Und Deren Wirkung Mit Einer Bibliographie Der Wolff-Literatur, edited by Schneiders, Werner, 289-305. Hamburg: Meiner.

  41. ———. 1998. "Ontologia E Scienze Empiriche in Christian Wolff." Colloquium Philosophicum.Annali del Dipartimento di Filosofia no. 3:239-256.

  42. Corr, Charles A. 1970. "Certitude and Utility in the Philosophy of Christian Wolff." Southwestern Journal of Philosophy no. 1:133-142.

    "Christian Wolff is frequently caricatured as a pedant wholly devoted to rational clarity and certitude. My thesis is that Wolff's obvious interest in mathematical method, the "natural logic" of the human mind, and the rehabilitation of the categorical syllogism is in terms of their service to practical and scientific utility. This contention is supported by the way in which Wolff finds room for probability and the hypothesis in philosophy. The present article sets forth these themes."

  43. ———. 1972. "Christian Wolff's Treatment of Scientific Discovery." Journal of the History of Philosophy no. 10:323-334.

    "Recent interest in a 'logic of discovery' recalls similar themes in the early 18th century. One philosopher who discussed such a problem was Christian Wolff (1679-1754). Wolff sought to formulate an 'ars inveniendi' or art of discovery to supplement his logic. This article describes Wolff's incomplete notion of an art of discovery and suggests that, although he did not achieve his goal, his sensitivity to the many dimensions of the problem may continue to be helpful today."

  44. ———. 1973. "The Existence of God, Natural Theology, and Christian Wolff." International Journal for Philosophy of Religion no. 4:105-118.

    "This article examines some elements of 'natural theology' as conceived by one of its principal proponents, the German philosopher Christian Wolff. Topics considered are Wolff's explicit comments on the character of this discipline and its role in his philosophy, together with his twin a posteriori and a priori proofs of the existence of God. The intention is both historical, in elucidating Wolff's philosophy and some of its implications for the thought of other philosophers of his time, and problematical, in terms of the adequacy of the natural theology paradigm for a contemporary philosophical approach to the existence of God."

  45. ———. 1974. "Did Wolff Follow Leibniz?" In Akten Des IV. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses, Mainz, 6-10 April 1974, edited by Finke, Gerhard, 11-21. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

    Vol. II Section I.

  46. ———. 1975. "Christian Wolff and Leibniz." Journal of the History of Ideas no. 36:241-262.

    "This article contends that the familiar stereotype of Christian Wolff as little more than a systematizer and popularizer of the doctrines of Leibniz is unsatisfactory both in itself and in the light of the available evidence. This thesis is argued by citing Wolff's own statements concerning his relationship to Leibniz, by noting some historical evidence involving the two men, and by surveying a variety of doctrinal points of difference, largely taken from Wolff's methodology and metaphysics. The effect is not so much to settle the matter but to describe the state of the problem and to call for further study."

  47. ———. 1975. "Christian Wolff's Distinction between Empirical and Rational Psychology." In Akten Des II. Internationalen Leibniz-Kongresses Hannover 17-22 Juli 1972, 195-215. Wiesbaden: Steiner.

    Studia Leibnitiana Supplementa 14 (vol. 3).

  48. ———. 1980. "Christian Wolff's German Metaphysics Volumes, Their Revisions, and Leibniz." In Theoria Cum Praxi. Zum Verhältnis Von Theorie Und Praxis Im 17. Und 18. Jahrundert. Band III, edited by Heinekamp, Albert and Finster, Reinhard, 231-239. Wiesbaden: Steiner.

    Akten des III. Internationalen Leibniz-Kongresses Hannover, 12.-17. November 1977.

    Studia Leibnitiana Supplementa 21.

  49. ———. 1982. "The Deutsche Metaphysik of Christian Wolff. Text and Transitions." In History of Philosophy in the Making. A Symposium of Essays to Honor Professor James D. Collins on His 65th Birthday by His Colleagues and Friends, edited by Thro, Linus J., 149-164. Washington: University Press of America.

  50. ———. 1983. "Cartesian Themes in Wolff's German Metaphysics." In Christian Wolff 1679-1754. Interpretationen Zu Seiner Philosophie Und Deren Wirkung Mit Einer Bibliographie Der Wolff-Literatur, edited by Schneiders, Werner, 113-120. Hamburg: Meiner.

  51. Croizer, Jacques. 2001. Les Héritiers De Leibniz. Logique Et Philosophie, De Leibniz À Russell. Paris: L'Harmattan.

    See: I. L'Aufklärung 1. 'Le Maître des allemands' pp. 35-66; 2. Le mouvement de l'Aufklärung pp. 67-73.

  52. Drechsler, Wolfgang. 1997. "Christian Wolff (1679-1754) a Biographical Essay." European Journal of Law and Economics no. 4:111-128.

    "This essay narrates chronologically the life of Christian Wolff (1679-1754), arguably the most eminent German philosopher between Leibniz and Kant, and an important figure in the development of thought about the state and its tasks as well as about the national economy. It is the first longer biographical sketch of Wolff in English, other than skeletal encyclopedia entries, since 1934, and the first original English one since 1910. Special attention is paid to Wolff''s formal honors, academic calls, salary questions, and the political, historical, and academic background, and particularly to his ennoblement, as Wolff may well have been the first scholar to receive such a high Imperial recognition on the basis of his scholarly work alone."

  53. Eichards, Robert J. 1980. "Christian Wolff's Prolegomena to Empirical and Rational Psychology: Translation and Commentary." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society no. 124:227-239.

  54. Engfer, Hans-Jürgen. 1982. Philosophie Als Analysis. Studien Zur Entwicklung Philosophischer Analysiskonzeptionen Unter Dem Einfluss Mathematischer Methodenmodelle Im 17. Und Fruhen 18. Jahrhundert. Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog.

    See Chapter V. Synthetische und analytische Methodenansätze bei Wolff pp. 219-263.

  55. ———. 1983. "Zur Bedeutung Wolffs Für Die Methdendiskussion Der Deutschen Aufklärungsphilosophie. Analytische Und Synthtische Methode Bei Wolff Und Beim Vorkritischen Kant." In Christian Wolff 1679-1754. Interpretationen Zu Seiner Philosophie Und Deren Wirkung Mit Einer Bibliographie Der Wolff-Literatur, edited by Schneiders, Werner, 48-65. Hamburg: Meiner.

  56. Euler, Werner. 2004. "Bewusstsein, Seele, Geist. Untersuchungen Zut Transformation Der Cartesischen 'Cogito' in Der Psychologie Christian Wolffs." In Die Psychologie Christian Wolffs. Systematische Und Historische Untersuchungen, edited by Rudolph, Oliver-Pierre and Goubet, Jean-François, 11-50. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

  57. Fabbianelli, Faustino, Goubet, Jean-François, and Rudolph, Oliver-Pierre, eds. 2011. Wolffiana IV. Zwischen Grundsãtzen Und Gegestãnden. Untersuchungen Zur Ontologie Christian Wolffs. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    "This volume embodies the new and lively interest in Christian Wolff which has been continuously developing over recent decades. It also bears witness to the rediscovery of ontology, a field of knowledge which has become increasingly visible, especially in recent years, in international philosophical reflection. The volume contains papers in German, French and Italian given at the international conference "Età dei Lumi e filosofia. L'ontologia di Christian Wolff", held in Parma from 19-21 February 2009. It is divided into six sections: "Structure and properties of Wolff's ontology", "'Signs'", "'Designation' and 'Ficta'", "Ontology in Wolff's thought", "Ontological debates", "The fate of Wolff's ontology" and "Wolff's ontology in the 20th century". The essays are complemented by an editors' introduction, an extensive bibliography and an index of names and subjects."

  58. Favaretti Camposampiero, Matteo. 2009. Conoscenza Simbolica. Pensiero E Linguaggio in Christian Wolff E Nella Prima Età Kantiana. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

  59. Findlay, John Niemeyer. 1981. Kant and the Transcendental Object. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    See Chapter II. The historical background of Kant's critical teaching. 1. The metaphysical principles of Leibniz and Wolff from the abiding background of Kant's thought, even when they are only used to prove certain characters of experienced objects to be phenomenal 29; II. Main points in Wolff's ontology 38; III. Main points in Wolff's cosmology and rational psychology 46; IV. Main points in Wolff's rational theology 52-57.

  60. Frängsmyr, Tore. 1975. "Christian Wolff's Mathematical Method and Its Impact on the Eighteenth Century." Journal of the History of Ideas no. 36:653-668.

    "Christian Wolff is often regarded to be one of the most influential philosophers of the 18th century, but yet he is ignored or treated very briefly in modern histories of philosophy. This paper will try to give an answer to this problem and also to specify what kind of influence Wolff had."

  61. Gerlach, Hans-Martin, ed. 2001. Christian Wolff. Seine Schule Und Seine Gegner. Hamburg: Meiner.

  62. Gerlach, Hans-Martin, Schenk, Günter, and Thaler, Burchard, eds. 1980. Christian Wolff Als Philosoph Der Aufklärung in Deutschland. Halle-Wittenberg: Wissenschaftspublizistik der Martin-Luther-Universität.

    Hallesches Wolff-Kolloquium 1979 anlässlich der 300. Wiederkehr seines Geburtstages.

  63. Gilson, Étienne. 1948. L'être Et L'essence. Paris: Vrin.

    Second revised edition 1962.

    See the Appendix: Aux origines de l'ontologie pp. 141-183.

  64. ———. 1949. Being and Some Philosophers. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.

    Second revised edition 1952.

    Chapter IV. Existence versus Being pp. 108-155.

  65. Gómez Tutor, Juan Ignacio. 2004. Die Wissenschaftliche Methode Bei Christian Wolff. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    "The scientific method stands at the centre of all Wolff's work. It forms the programme which gives his whole philosophy its decisive characteristics. This monograph offers the first comprehensive analysis of Wolff's method. It enables us to understand that Wolff's conception of his scientific method was the result of a long process which was still not complete even in his later works. Such a finding contradicts both the prevalent myth of Wolff as a monolithic figure who never underwent any intellectual development and the easy verdict of much scholarship that Wolff's Latin works are simply a repetition of his German ones. At the same time this book emphasises Wolff's importance for the theory of method and broadens our current perspective on the scientific method."

  66. Goubet, Jean-François. 2002. "Fondement, Principes Et Utilité De La Connaissance. Sur La Notion Wolffienne De Système." Archives de Philosophie no. 65:81-103.

  67. ———. 2003. "Psychologie Et Métaphysique. Autour De Christian Wolff." Revue Philosophique de la France et de l'Étranger no. 128:275-277.

  68. ———. 2003. "Force Et Facultés De L'âme Dans La Metaphysique Allemande." Revue Philosophique de la France et de l'Étranger no. 193:337-350.

  69. ———. 2005. "La Traduction De La Métaphysique Allemande Du Xviiie Siècle." Revue Philosophique de la France et de l'Étranger no. 195:523-536.

    "The major works of XVIIIth century German metaphysics (Wolff, Crusius, Bilfinger, Baumgarten, Meier, Lambert) have not been recently translated into French. The translation of those texts must first take into account the circulation between languages (Latin, German, French) which characterizes them but, above all, should let the proper metaphysical meaning of the notions surge. Thus, one should be led to specify more precisely the meaning of Deutlichkeit and Evidenz, to distinguish between Vermögen and Kraft, and to tell whether Beschaffenheit means something like Wesen or something like Natur. One will also have to ponder over Zusammenhang, Erklärung, auseinandersetzen, etc. Such is the price to be paid so as to be able to drag away Wolff and others like him from the unfair disrepute they fell."

  70. ———. 2005. "Logique Et Philosophie Chez Christian Wolff (1679-1754)." Corpus.Reuve de Philosophie no. 49:101-131.

  71. Gracia, Jorge J.E. 1993. "Christian Wolff on Individuation." History of Philosophy Quarterly no. 10:147-164.

    Reprinted in: Kenneth F. Barber and Jorge J. E. Gracia (eds.) - Individuation and identity in early modern philosophy - Albany, State University of New York Press, 1994 pp. 219-244.

    "This article is divided into three parts. First, I examine briefly the nature of Wolff's "Ontology", its method, and the place that the discussion of individuality and individuation occupies in the overall structure of the text. Second, I present and characterize Wolff's view of individuation. Finally, I explore the extent to which Wolff's theory of individuation displays the influence of the epistemologism prevalent in modern philosophy. I defend two main theses. First, I claim that Wolff's theory of individuation is a bundle view with a strong accidental component. Second, I argue that the

    influence of the epistemologism of modern philosophy is one of the factors that led Wolff to adopt the view of individuation that he did."

  72. Grapote, Sophie;, and Prunea-Bretonnet, Tinca, eds. 2011. Kant Et Wolff. Héritages Et Ruptures. Paris: Vrin.

  73. Gurr, John Edwin. 1959. The Principle of Sufficient Reason in Some Scholastic Systems 1750-1900. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press.

    See: The point of departure in Leibniz and Wolff pp. 11-49.

    "In this treatment of Wolff we will consider his use of the Principle of Sufficient Reason under three general headings suggested by his own arrangement of the matter, especially in the Ontology. 1. We shall see it presented as one of the twin pillars of philosophy, functioning as an axiom basic to his system, but subordinate to the Principle of Contradiction, and with the ultimate meaning of ratio derived from the system itself. 2. This will be followed by a quick glance at Wolff's history of the Principle and his theory of its origin. 3. The analysis will conclude with a view of the Principle in the overall context of Wolff's metaphysics and method." p. 35

  74. Heimsoeth, Heinz. 1956. Studien Zur Philosophie Immanuel Kants. Metaphysische Ursprünge Und Ontologische Grundlagen. Karlsruhe: Müller.

    See: Christian Wolffs Ontologie und die Prinzipienforschung Immanuel Kants. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Kategorienlehre pp. 1-92

  75. Hinske, Norbert. 1983. "Wolffs Stellung in Der Deutschen Aufklärung." In Christian Wolff 1679-1754. Interpretationen Zu Seiner Philosophie Und Deren Wirkung Mit Einer Bibliographie Der Wolff-Literatur, edited by Schneiders, Werner, 306-319. Hamburg: Meiner.

  76. ———. 1999. "La Psicologia Empirica Di Wolff E L'antropologia Pragmatica Di Kant. La Fondazione Di Una Nuova Scienza Empirica." In La Filosofia Pratica Tra Metafisica E Antropologia Nell'età Di Wolff E Vico, edited by Cacciatore, Giuseppe, Gessa-Kurotschka, Vanna, Poser, Hans and Sanna, Manuela, 207-224. Napoli: Guida.

    Atti del Convegno Internazionale, Napoli, 2-5 aprile 1997.

  77. ———. 1999. "Die Philosophie Christian Wolffs Und Ihre Langfristolgen." In Aufklärung Und Interpretation. Studien Zu Kants Philosophie Und Ihren Umkreis.Tagung Aus Anlass De 60. Geburstages Von Reinhardt Brandt, edited by Klemme, Heiner F., Bernd, Ludwig, Pauen, Michael and Stark, Werner, 29-37. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann.

  78. Honnefelder, Ludwig. 1990. Scientia Transcendens. Die Formale Bestimmung Der Seiendheit Und Realität in Der Methaphysik Des Mittelalters Und Der Neuzeit (Duns Scotus, Suárez, Wolff, Kant, Peirce). Hamburg: F. Meiner.

    See: Dritter Teil. Metaphysik als Ontologie: Die Explickation der Seiendheit als non contradictio bei Christian Wolff pp. 295-381.

  79. Kim, Chang Won. 2004. Der Begriff Der Welt Bei Wolff, Baumgarten, Crusius Und Kant. Eine Untersuchung Zur Vorgeschichte Von Kants Weltbegriff Von 1770. Bern: Peter Lang.

    Contents: Ch. Wolff: Der Glaube an die Macht der Vernunft in seiner Metaphysik - Die Bedeutung des Begriffs «allgemein» in seiner allgemeinen Kosmologie - Seine Kosmologie liefere sowohl der natürlichen Theologie als auch den Naturwissenschaften sichere Grundlagen - Die Analysis seiner Weltbegriffe - Die Gründe für die Veränderungen innerhalb der Definition des Weltbegriffs - Der Einwand Joachim Langes - A. G. Baumgarten: Der Begriff der Welt - Die negative Formulierung des Totalitätsbegriffs als series, quae non est pars alterius - Der Wegfall der Begriffe inter se connexum, simultanea und successiva - Das Problem seiner Verwendung des Begriffs actuale bei der Definition der Welt - Ch. A. Crusius: Der wesentliche Unterschied seiner neuen «metaphysischen Kosmologie» von der Wolffschen - Der Weltbegriff und der Begriff der realen Verknüpfung - Kant: Die Frage nach dem Kontext der Definition der Welt in der Dissertation von 1770 - Das Hauptthema der Dissertation - Die ältere Version des Begriffs des Grundes der Form der Welt - Die veränderte Auffassung vom Raum - Die Unterscheidung zwischen dem Sensibilen und dem Intelligibilen - Der Grund der Form der Verstandeswelt und die Gründe der Form der Sinnenwelt - Die Definition der Welt in der Dissertation von 1770.

  80. Kirsten, Günther. 1970. Die Kategorienlehre Von Christian Wolff Und Hegel. Ein Vergleich Ihrer Bestimmung Und Methodischen Entwicklung. Frankfurt: Druck Bildstelle der J. W. Goethe Universität.

  81. Kobau, Pietro. 2004. Essere Qualcosa. Ontologia E Psicologia in Wolff. Torino: Trauben.

  82. Kühn, Manfred. 1997. "The Wolffian Background of Kant's Transcendental Deduction." In Logic and the Working of the Mind. The Logic of Ideas and Faculty Psychology in Early Modern Philosophy, edited by Easton, Patricia A., 229-250. Atascadero: Ridgeview.

  83. ———. 1999. "Der Objektbegriff Bei Christian Wolff Und Immanuel Kant." In Aufklärung Und Interpretation. Studien Zu Kants Philosophie Und Ihren Umkreis.Tagung Aus Anlass De 60. Geburstages Von Reinhardt Brandt, edited by Klemme, Heiner F., Bernd, Ludwig, Pauen, Michael and Stark, Werner, 39-56. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann.

  84. Lach, Donald F. 1953. "The Sinophilism of Christian Wolff (1679-1754)." Journal of the History of Ideas no. 14:561-574.

    Reprinted in: Julia Ching and Willard G. Oxtoby (eds.) - Discovering China. European interpretations in the Enlightenment - Rochester, University of Rochester Press, 1992, pp. 117-130.

    (The first study in English about Wolff).

  85. Lamarra, Antonio. 2007. "Contexte Génétique Et Première Réception De La Monadologie. Leibniz, Wolff Et La Doctrine De L'harmonie Préétablie." Revue de Synthèse no. 128:311-324.

  86. Lenders, Winfried. 1971. "The Analytic Logic of G. W. Leibniz and Chr. Wolff: A Problem in Kant Research." Synthese no. 23:147-153.

    "The background of the paper is the question after the sources of Kantian philosophy in the field of logic. This question refers to a second question whether Kant knew the consequences of the analytic logic of Leibniz directly from Leibniz's writings or indirectly from the logic of Christian Wolff and his adherents. As a result of the investigation it could be demonstrated that there are basic differences between Leibniz and Wolff in the field of logic and that these differences are based in fundamentally different positions of the two philosophers."

  87. ———. 1971. Die Analytische Begriffs- Und Uteilstheorie Von G. Leibniz Und Chr. Wolff. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

  88. Lorenz, Andreas. 2001. "Nihil Est Sine Ratione Sufficiente. Wolffs Begründung Der Ontologie Un Leibniz' Scientia De Aliquid Et De Nihilo." In Nihil Sine Ratione. Mensch, Natur Und Technik Um Wirken Von G. W. Leibniz, edited by Poser, Hans, Asmuth, Christoph, Goldenbaum, Ursula and Li, Wenchao, 744-751. Hannover: Gottfired-Wilhelm-Leibniz Gesellschaft.

    VII. Internationaler Leibniz-Kongress; Berlin 10-14 September 2001. Vorträge.

  89. Malter, Rudolf. 1979. "L'analyse Comme Procédé De La Métaphysique. L'opposition À La Méthodologie Wolfienne Dans La "Preisschrift" De Kant En 1763 (1764)." Archives de Philosophie no. 42:575-591.

  90. Marcolungo, Ferdinando. 1975. "Le Radici Del Possibile. Note Per Un'interpretazione Problematica Della Filosofia Di Wolff." In Logica E Semantica E Altri Saggi, edited by Giacon, Carlo, 199-218. Padova: Antenore.

  91. ———. 1975. "Principi E Sistema. Saggio Sui Rapporti Wolff - Leibniz." In Storiografia E Filosofia Del Linguaggio, edited by Giacon, Carlo, 85-121. Padova: Antenore.

  92. ———. 1977. "I Primi Principi Della Metafisica Di Christian Wolff." In Ermeneutica, Logica E Altri Saggi, edited by Giacon, Carlo, 195-232. Padova: Antenore.

  93. ———. 1982. Wolff E Il Possibile. Padova: Antenore.

  94. ———. 1989. "Wolff E Il Problema Del Metodo." Il Cannocchiale.Rivista di Studi Filosofici:11-38.

    Reprinted in: S. Carboncini, L. Cataldi Madonna (eds.) - Nuovi studi sul pensiero di Christian Wolff - Hildesheim, Georg Olms, 1989

  95. ———, ed. 2007. Wolffiana III: Christian Wolff Tra Psicologia Empirica E Psicologia Razionale. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    Atti del seminario internazionale di studi, Verona, 13-14 maggio 2005.

    "The comparison of Psychologia empirica and Psychologia rationalis is one of the themes which are of fundamental importance to the understanding of Christian Wolff's philosophy. As is generally known, the terms themselves go back to the two major Latin works first published in 1732 and 1734. Contrary to the prevalent opinion which has viewed the difference between Psychologia empirica and Psychologia rationalis as purely a matter of tradition, here it is viewed rather as a distinction formulated in a specific way for Wolff and arising from the encounter between modern metaphysics and new scientific methods. Following the celebrations in 2004 to mark the 250th anniversary of Wolff's death, a scholarly conference took place at the University of Verona in 2005 with the aim of reconstructing this theme for the interpretation of a way of thinking which is too easily interpreted as the clearest example of an abstract and dogmatic rationalism. In the essays published here attention is drawn instead to the central role of experience which allows a continual comparison of psychic facts and philosophical considerations. From this comes the importance of the comparison with Locke and Malebranche, as well as analyses of what are known as ideales sensuales or typical processes of imagination and of symbolic language, and the possibility of the application of mathematics to psychometrics. Historically-based comparisons (Alsted, Baumgarten, Meier, Kant, Herbart) are also present, illuminating the afterlife of a way of thinking which surely prepared the ground for the development of a new philosophical anthropology."

  96. ———, ed. 2007. Christian Wolff Tra Psicologia Empirica E Psicologia Razionale. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    Atti del seminario internazionale di studi, Verona, 13-14 maggio 2005

  97. Merker, Nicolao. 1967. "Cristiano Wolff E La Metodologia Del Razionalismo (Prima Parte)." Rivista Critica di Storia della Filosofia no. 22:271-293.

  98. ———. 1968. "Cristiano Wolff E La Metodologia Del Razionalismo (Seconda Parte)." Rivista Critica di Storia della Filosofia no. 23:21-38.

  99. Morrison, James C. 1993. "Christian Wolff's Criticism of Spinoza." Journal of the History of Philosophy no. 31:405-420.

  100. Mugnai, Massimo. 2005. "Logic and Mathematics in the 18th Century: Before and after Christian Wolff." In Wolffiana 1: Macht Und Bescheidenheit Der Vernunft: Beiträge Zur Philosophie Christian Wolffs; Gedenkband Für Hans Werner Arndt, edited by Cataldi Madonna, Luigi, 97-109. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

  101. Paccioni, Jean-Paul. 2002. "L'aptitude À Exister Et La Métaphysique Wolffienne." Archives de Philosophie no. 65:65-80.

  102. ———. 2003. "Wolff, L'expérience Et La Raison Non Pure." Revue Philosophique de la France et de l'Étranger no. 128:307-322.

    "This paper analyzes how experience, both a priori and a posteriori knowledge, are articulated in Christian Wolff's work. It thus shows that the pattern opposing rationalism to empiricism cannot be applied to the latter. After having studied Tschirnhaus' influence, then Leibniz' on Wolff, the research carries forward on how the latter considers intuitive knowledge. Thus does appear the part played according to Wolff by perception in the building of notions and the status he grants to the latters. Hence the status of both meaning of, and part played by, the "non pure" reason."

  103. ———. 2003. "Dieu Dans Le Miroir. Leibniz, Wolff Et L'actualisation Du Monde." Études Philosophiques no. 66:371-387.

    "This study aims to show how Wolff differs from Leibniz, in the context of Deutsche Metaphysik regarding the theme of world actualization. In this new context, the mirror metaphor must be applied more traditionally to all creatures, and the workings of the best of all possible worlds principle must be reviewed. It is on the basis of these transformations that the theory of universal harmony and the causality problem were transmitted to Kant."

  104. ———. 2004. ""Wolff Est-Il Le Vrai Inventeur De La Psychologie Rationelle?" L'expérience, L'existence Actuelle Et La Rationalité Dans Le Projet Wolffien De Psychologie." In Die Psychologie Christian Wolffs. Systematische Und Historische Untersuchungen, edited by Rudolph, Oliver-Pierre and Goubet, Jean-François, 77-100. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

  105. ———. 2006. Cet Ésprit De Profondeur. Christian Wolff L'ontologie Et La Métaphysique. Paris: Vrin.

  106. ———. 2007. "Leibniz, Wolff Et Les Monades Science Et Métaphysique." Revue de Synthèse no. 128:275-278.

  107. ———. 2007. "Leibniz, Wolff Et La Métaphysique Traitée Selon La Méthode Scientifique." Revue de Synthèse no. 128:295-310.

    "Wolff's philosophy is often defined by commentators as 'dogmatic Leibnizism'. However, if we try to read the expression in a positive light, we discover what exactly distinguishes Wolff's metaphysics from that of Leibniz, thereby establishing Wolff's real contribution to the history of thought. First of all, the notion of 'dogma' presented in Wolff's philosophy is analyzed. This notion recalls the demonstrative model provided by mathematics and especially, Euclid's Elements. According to axiomatic patterns, ontology is thought of as the 'first philosophy'. This aspect cannot be separated from the function of a posteriori knowledge in Wolff's thinking. This permits us to comprehend the function of ontology, Wolff's cosmology, and his invention of the notion of 'teleology'."

  108. Paganini, Gianni. 1994. "Psychologie Et Langage Chez Ch. Wolff." In Aufklärung Und Erneuerung. Beiträge Zur Geschichte Der Universität Halle Im Ersten Jahrundert Ihres Bestehens (1694-1806), edited by Jerouschek, Günter and Sames, Arno, 118-124. Hanau: Dausien.

  109. Paolinelli, Marco. 1971. Fisico-Teologia E Principio Di Ragion Sufficiente. Boyle, Maupertuis, Wolff, Kant. Milano: Vita e Pensiero.

  110. ———. 1974. "Metodo Matematico E Ontologia in Christian Wolff." Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica no. 66:3-39.

  111. Pape, Ingetrud. 1966. Tradition Und Transformation Der Modalität. I. Möglichkeit - Unmöglichkeit. Hamburg: Meiner.

    See: Christian wolff pp. 174-216.

  112. Park, Jeongwoo. 2007. "Le Débat Wolffien Sur L'idéalisme De Leibniz Lors De La Première Diffusion De La Monadologie Latine." Revue de Synthèse no. 128:325-340.

  113. Paz, Boguslaw. 2001. "Christian Wolffs Ontologie: Ihre Voraussetzungen Und Hauptdimensionen (Mit Besonderer Berücksichtigung Der Philosophie Von Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz)." In Christian Wolff. Seine Schule Und Seine Gegner, edited by Gerlach, Hans-Martin, 27-49. Hamburg: Meiner.

  114. Peursen, Cornelis-Anthonie van. 1983. "Ars Inveniendi in Rahmen Der Metaphysik Christian Wolffs. Die Rolle Der Ars Inveniendi." In Christian Wolff 1679-1754. Interpretationen Zu Seiner Philosophie Und Deren Wirkung Mit Einer Bibliographie Der Wolff-Literatur, edited by Schneiders, Werner, 66-88. Hamburg: Meiner.

  115. ———. 1987. "Christian Wolff's Philosophy of Contingent Reality." Journal of the History of Philosophy no. 25:69-82.

    "Was the rejection by Wolff of the classification of the "Leibniz-wolffian philosophy" justified? This article draws attention to the notion of "contingency" in Wolff as distinguishing him from Leibniz. The "possible worlds" of Leibniz are overpopulated with events, those of Wolff are empty. For Leibniz contingent existence is the highest grade of possibility, for Wolff it needs, however, a "complementum possibilitatis." Wolff is not a pure rationalist but he defends the "marriage between ratio and experience"."

  116. Pichler, Hans. 1910. Über Christian Wolffs Ontologie. Leipzig: Dürr.

  117. Pimpinella, Pietro. 1984. ""Spiritus" Nella Psychologia Rationalis Di Christian Wolff." In Spiritus. IV Colloquio Internazionale Roma, 7-9 Gennaio 1983, edited by Fattori, Marta and Bianchi, Massimo, 429-447. Roma: Edizioni dell'Ateneo.

    Lessico Intellettuale Europeo, vol. 32

  118. ———. 2002. "Experientia / Erfahrung." In Experientia. X Colloquio Internazionale, Roma, 4-6 Gennaio 2001, edited by Veneziani, Marco, 367-397. Firenze: Olschki.

    Lessico Intellettuale Europeo, 91

  119. ———. 2004. "Ontologia E Logica in Christian Wolff." In Metafisica Logica Filosofia Della Natura. I Termini Delle Categorie Aristoteliche Dal Mondo Antico All'età Moderna, edited by Canone, Eugemio, 343-373. Sarzana: Agorà Edizioni.

  120. Poli, Roberto. 1992. "Twardowski and Wolff." In Theories of Objects: Meinong and Twardowski, edited by Pasniczek, Jacek, 45-56. Lublin: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Slodowskiej.

  121. Poser, Hans. 1975. "Zum Begriff Der Monade Bei Leibniz Und Wolff." In Akten Des II. Internationalen Leibniz-Kongresses Hannover 17-22 Juli 1972, 383-395. Wiesbaden: Steiner.

    Studia Leibnitiana Supplementa 14 (vol. 3).

  122. ———. 1979. "Die Bedeutung Des Begriffs "Ahnlichkeit" in Der Metaphysik Christian Wolffs." Studia Leibnitiana no. 11:62-81.

    "The concept of similarity is used to exemplify in what way Wolff conveys a new content to a traditional concept. Similarity functions in his system as a link between a priori ontology and a posteriori knowledge, because it is similarity on which relies Wolff's theory of abstraction, his doctrine of order (which also includes the concepts of perfection, of space and time) and even his characterization of human faculties of knowing (e. g., expectation of similar events, wit and penetration)."

  123. ———. 1983. "Mögliche Erkenntnis Der Möglichkeit. Die Transformation Der Modalkategorien Der Wolffschen Schule in Kants Kritischer Philosophie." Grazer Philosophische Studien no. 20:129-147.

  124. ———. 2005. "Zwischen Kants Kritik Und Leibniz' Lösung : Christian Wolffs "Complementum Possibilitatis"." In Wolffiana 1: Macht Und Bescheidenheit Der Vernunft: Beiträge Zur Philosophie Christian Wolffs; Gedenkband Für Hans Werner Arndt, edited by Cataldi Madonna, Luigi, 185-203. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

  125. Puech, Michel. 1990. Kant Et La Causalité. Étude Sur La Formation Du Système Critique. Paris: Vrin.

    See: II. La question de la causalité dans la métaphysique allemande; 2. Le système de Wolff pp. 72-91; 3. Les manuels des wolffiens pp. 91-106; 4. Les arguments des anti-wolffiens pp. 106-117; 5. L'éclectisme des post-wolffiens pp. 117-127.

  126. Rey, Anne-Lise. 2004. "Ontologie Et Psychologie Dans La Pensée De Christian Wolff: La Raison De L'actualisation." In Die Psychologie Christian Wolffs. Systematische Und Historische Untersuchungen, edited by Rudolph, Oliver-Pierre and Goubet, Jean-François, 101-122. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

  127. Ricken, Ulrich. 1989. Leibniz, Wolff Und Einige Sprachtheoretische Entwicklungen in Der Deutschen Aufklärung. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

  128. Risse, Wilhelm. 1970. Die Logik Der Neuzeit. Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog.

    Vol. II: 1640-1780.

    See: Wolff und seine Schule pp. 579-659.

  129. Rudolph, Oliver-Pierre. 2003. "Mémoire, Réflexion Et Conscience Chez Christian Wolff." Revue Philosophique de la France et de l'Étranger no. 128:351-360.

  130. ———. 2004. "Die Psychologie Christian Wolffs Und Die Scholastische Tradition." In Die Psychologie Christian Wolffs. Systematische Und Historische Untersuchungen, edited by Rudolph, Oliver-Pierre and Goubet, Jean-François, 243-256. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

  131. Rudolph, Oliver-Pierre, and Goubet, Jean-François, eds. 2004. Die Psychologie Christian Wolffs. Systematische Und Historische Untersuchungen. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

  132. Ruello, Francis. 1963. "Christian Wolff Et La Scolastique." Traditio.Studies in Ancient and Medieval History no. 19:411-425.

  133. Rumore, Paola. 2007. L'ordine Delle Idee. La Genesi Del Concetto Di "Rappresentazione" in Kant Attraverso Le Sue Fonti Wolffiane (1747-1787). Firenze: Le Lettere.

  134. Rutherford, Donald. 2004. "Idealism Declined: Leibniz and Christian Wolff." In Leibniz and His Correspondents, edited by Lodge, Paul, 214-237. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  135. Saine, Thomas. 1987. "Who's Afraid of Christian Wolff?" In Anticipations of the Enlightenment in England, France, and Germany, edited by Kors, Alan Charles and Korshin, Paul J., 102-133. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

  136. Scaglione, Aldo. 1980. "Direct Vs. Inverted Order: Wolff and Condillac on the Necessity of the Sign and the Interrelationship of Language and Thinking." Romance Philology no. 33:496-501.

  137. Schneiders, Werner, ed. 1983. Christian Wolff 1679-1754. Interpretationen Zu Seiner Philosophie Und Deren Wirkung Mit Einer Bibliographie Der Wolff-Literatur. Hamburg: Meiner.

    Reprinted 1986.

  138. ———. 1983. Auflkärung Und Vorurteilskritik. Studien Zur Geschichte Der Vorurteilstheorie. Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog.

    See: IV. Gnoseologische Vorurteilskritik 155-202; V. Pragmatische Vorurteilskritik 203-262.

  139. ———. 1983. "Deus Est Philosophus Absolute Summus: Über Christian Wolffs Philosophie Und Philosophiebegriff." In Christian Wolff 1679-1754. Interpretationen Zu Seiner Philosophie Und Deren Wirkung Mit Einer Bibliographie Der Wolff-Literatur, edited by Schneiders, Werner, 9-30. Hamburg: Meiner.

  140. ———. 1989. "Christian Wolff Über Verstand Und Vernunft." Il Cannocchiale.Rivista di Studi Filosofici:39-59.

    Reprinted in: S. Carboncini, L. Cataldi Madonna (eds.) - Nuovi studi sul pensiero di Christian Wolff - Hildesheim, Georg Olms, 1989

  141. Schnepf, Robert. 2007. "Allgemeine Metaphysik Als Erste Philosophie. Zum Problem Kategorialer Begriffsbildung in Christian Wolffs Ontologie." In Wolffiana II. Christian Wolff Und Die Europäische Aufklärung. Teil 1, edited by Stolzenberg, Jürgen and Rudolph, Oliver-Pierre, 181-203. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

  142. Schonfeld, Martin. 2002. "Christian Wolff and Leibnizian Monads." Leibniz Review no. 12:131-135.

  143. Schüssler, Ingeborg. 2006. "Critique Et Réfondation De La Métaphysique Chez Kant: Les Progrès De La Métaphysique Et La Critique Du Système Leibniziano-Wolffien." Archives de Philosophie no. 69:567-599.

    "In his late writing, The Progresses of Metaphysics (1791) Kant is summarizing all his metaphysics whilst criticizing traditional metaphysics and, above all, the Leibniz-Wolff's system (which is, according to him, its summit). Because finiteness of human thinking is occurring, traditional metaphysics -- affair of reason and logic -- is revealed to be void. Kant then refunds metaphysics on that what is given (the pure intuitions, the moral law of liberty and, in a certain sense, the empiricism of sensible world) for to hinder its "sinking into the nothing". He distinguishes three states of metaphysics: its "sure progress" in critical transcendental "ontology", its "skeptical stop" in speculative cosmology and its moral practical progress to the supersensible ideas (before all of God and immorality). Metaphysics, elevating so itself to the supersensible and considering from it the sensible world, is then proving itself to be a knowledge which is fundamentally different from all ontical empirical knowledge."

  144. Senn, Peter. 1997. "What Is the Place of Christian Wolff in the History of the Social Sciences?" European Journal of Law and Economics no. 4:147-232.

    Reprinted in: Jürgen Backhaus (ed.) - Christian Wolff and Law and Economics. The Heilbronn Symposium - Hildesheim, Georg Olms, 1998, pp. 37-122.

    "This paper explores the place of Christian Wolff in the history of social science in English. The "Introduction" places Wolff in the context of the pre-history of modern social science. Samples are given of the great range of subjects on which he wrote. The importance of the German context is stressed. The second part is devoted to a sample of what the literature contains by and about Wolff. It emphasizes philosophy and science. Part three is a survey of works in the history of the social sciences that mention Wolff. He has a substantial place in political science and psychology, a much smaller place in economics and history, virtually none in anthropology, geography, and sociology. In the applied social sciences, he is found in the history of education. Possible reasons are given. Part four is devoted to the relationships of philosophy and philosophers in the pre-history of the social sciences. They were important in several different ways because they both shaped and reflected how many people thought about science and social problems. The "Summary and Conclusion" describes the present status. His contributions are summarized. He was a pivotal figure in the making of the German conception of social science. This is a preliminary study emphasizing the issues and problems that a more detailed examination would require. Several conventional judgments are challenged and possibilities for further research suggested."

  145. Stiening, Gideon. 2004. ""Partes Metaphysicae Sunt Duae: Deues & Mentes". Anmerkungen Zur Entstehung Und Entwicklung Der Psychologie Als Metaphysica Specialis Zwischen Rudolph Goclenius Und Christian Wolff." In Die Psychologie Christian Wolffs. Systematische Und Historische Untersuchungen, edited by Rudolph, Oliver-Pierre and Goubet, Jean-François, 213-232. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

  146. Stolzenberg, Jürgen, and Rudolph, Oliver-Pierre, eds. 2007. Wolffiana II. Christian Wolff Und Die Europäische Aufklärung. Teil 1. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    Akten des 1. Internationalen Christian-Wolff-Kongresses, Halle (Saale), 4-8 April 2004.

    Vorwort, Nachruf auf Hans Werner Arndt, Einleitung, Ehrenpromotion von Jean Ecole, Plenums- und Abendvorträge.

  147. ———, eds. 2007. Wolffiana II. Christian Wolff Und Die Europäische Aufklärung. Teil 2. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    Akten des 1. Internationalen Christian-Wolff-Kongresses, Halle (Saale), 4-8 April 2004.

    System der Metaphysik. Logik. Ontologie. Psychologie.

    Inhalt: Sektionsvorträge. SEKTION i: SYSTEM DER METAPHYSIK. Oliver-Pierre Rudolph: Das Fundament des Wolffschen Systems der Philosophie 15; Thierry Arnaud: La fondation de la Theologie naturelle dans le systeme de la Métaphysique allemande 25; Henry Alexander Henrysson: Purposes, Possibilities and Perfection. The Metaphysical System of Leibniz and Wolff 39; Violetta L. Waibel: Die Systemkonzeptionen bei Wolff und Lambert 51; Jindrich Karásek: Philosophie als strenge Wissenschaft. Zur systematischen Begründung des Systems der Metaphysik bei Wolff und Kant 71; Cornelia Buschmann: Scientia affectiva practica - scientia practica universalis - scientia possibilium. Wolffs Wissenschaftsbegriff - Prolegomenon oder Abbreviatur der Metaphysik? 99; SEKTION 2: LOGIK. Juan Ignacio Gómez Tutor: Die wissenschaftliche Methode bei Christian Wolff 113; Ursula Neemann: Der Zusammenhang zwischen formalen und ontologischen Aspekten in der Urteilstheorie von Christian Wolff 124; Jean-Francois Goubet: Das Verhältnis zwischen mathematischer Methode und Logik 141; Matteo Favaretti Camposampiero: Usage des mots et connaissance symbolique

    chez Christian Wolff 153; Luigi Cataldi Madonna: Erfahrung und Intuition in der Philosophie von Christian Wolff 173; Vadim Kurpakov: Zum Einfluss von Wolff und Wolffianem auf die Kantische Logik 195; Hanno Birken-Bertsch: Erfahrung, Subreption und Idealismus. Von Wolff zu Kant 205; Konstantin Pollok: Christian Wolffs Begriffs- und Urteilstheorie als Vorläufer einer inferentiellen Semantik 219; SEKTION 3: ONTOLOGIE. Anne-Lise Rey: La lecture wolffienne de la Dynamique leibnizienne. Un moyen d'identifier la specificité de la notion de substance chez Wolff 237; Boguslaw Paz: Methode und Wahrheit bei Wolff 219; Vitaly IVanov: Principium omnium primum. Zur Frage nach der Stellung des Widerspruchsprinzips in der Ordnung der Explikation des Begriffs des Seienden in der Wissenschaft der Ontologie 273; Jeongwoo Park: Metaphysik des Spielraums. Wolffs Neubestimmung des Eventusbegriffs hinsichtlich des Seienden, des Systems und der Freiheit, insbesondere gegen Spinoza 291; Carlos Morujäo: Wolff, Kant und der Begriff der Existenz 301; Nelly Motroschilova: Kritik des 20. Jahrhunderts am ontologischen Projekt Christian Wolffs 311; SEKTION 4: PSYCHOLOGIE.

    Angelica Nuzzo: A Problem for Psychology. Kant and Wolff on Soul and Space 321; Pietro Pimpinella: Symbolische Erkenntnis bei Christian Wolff 339; Faustino Fabbianelli: Tatsachen des Bewusstseins und "nexus rerum" in Christian Wolffs Psychologie 355; Falk Wunderlich: Christian Wolff über Bewusstsein, Apperzeption und Selbstbewusstsein 367; Udo Thiel: Zum Verhältnis von Gegenstandsbewusstsein und Selbstbewusstsein bei Wolff und seinen Kritikern 377; Frank Grunert; Erinnerung als Kreation. Zur Gedächtnistheorie von Christian Wolff und der Wolff-Schule 391; Raffaele Ciafardone:

    Kraft und Vermögen bei Christian Wolff und Johann Nicolaus Tetens mit Beziehung auf Kant 405; Siglenverzeichnis 415-420.

  148. ———, eds. 2007. Wolffiana II. Christian Wolff Und Die Europäische Aufklärung. Teil 3. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    Akten des 1. Internationalen Christian-Wolff-Kongresses, Halle (Saale), 4-8 April 2004.

    Kosmologie. Theologie. Praktische Philosophie.

  149. ———, eds. 2007. Wolffiana II. Christian Wolff Und Die Europäische Aufklärung. Teil 4. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    Akten des 1. Internationalen Christian-Wolff-Kongresses, Halle (Saale), 4-8 April 2004.

    Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften. Ästhetik und Poetik.

  150. ———, eds. 2010. Wolffiana II. Christian Wolff Und Die Europäische Aufklärung. Teil 5. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    Akten des 1. Internationalen Christian-Wolff-Kongresses, Halle (Saale), 4-8 April 2004.

    Wolff und seine Schule. Wirkungen Wolffs. Wolff in Halle. Verttreibung und Rückkerhr.

  151. Theis, Robert. 2004. "Significations Et Limites De La Pensée Du Fondement Chez Christian Wolff." Études Germaniques no. 59:41-61.

  152. Tonelli, Giorgio. 1967. "Christian Wolff." In The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edwards, Paul, 340-344. New York: Macmillan.

    Volume 8

  153. ———. 1971. "The 'Weakness of Reason' in the Age of Enlightenment." Diderot Studies no. 14:217-244.

  154. ———. 1975. "The Problem of the Classification of the Sciences in Kant's Time." Rivista Critica di Storia della Filosofia no. 30:243-294.

    On Wolff see pp. 243-250.

  155. ———. 1976. "Analysis and Synthesis in Xviiith Century Philosophy Prior to Kant." Archiv für Begriffsgeschichte no. 20:178-213.

  156. Ungeheuer, Gerold. 1983. "Sprache Und Symbolische Erkenntnis Bei Wolff." In Christian Wolff 1679-1754. Interpretationen Zu Seiner Philosophie Und Deren Wirkung Mit Einer Bibliographie Der Wolff-Literatur, edited by Schneiders, Werner, 89-112. Hamburg: Meiner.

  157. Verducci, Daniela. 1982. "Esperienza E Ragione Nella Metafisica Latina Di Christian Wolff." Filosofia Oggi no. 5:485-504.

  158. Vieillard-Baron, Jean-Louis. 1973. "A Propos Des Manuscrits D'émile Ravier Sur Wolff." Giornale di Metafisica no. 28:39-44.

    "Émile Ravier, auteur de la celebre bibliographie de Leibniz, a laissé un très riche ensemble de manuscrits sur Wolff, ainsi qu'une traduction complete en français de l'ouvrage de Mariano Campo, Cristiano Wolff e il razionalismo precritico. On a montré les rapports de Wolff à Leibniz d'apres les manuscrits d'Émile Ravier, qui revelent que Wolff ne voulut jamais être le porte-parole de la pensée leibnizienne en Allemagne. Il serait possible à partir de là de detruire le mythe du "leibniziano-wolffisme" dont parle Kant pour le refuter."

  159. Vitadello, Anna Maria. 1973. "Experience Et Raison Dans La Psychologie De Christian Wolff." Revue Philosophique de Louvain no. 71:488-511.

    "Cet éxposé de la psychologie de Christian Wolff adopte un point de vue descriptif et épistémologique. Le but de l'auteur fut de saisir la psychologie wolffienne dans l'intentionalité de son langage, qui, tout en restant philosophique et même substantialiste, laisse entrevoir une direction assez nette dans l'ensemble. Celle-ci prefigure, d'une façon lointaine mais significative, la psychologie de laboratoire; c'est-a-dire une science qui traite empiriquement de l'expérience psychologique au moyen de l'introspection et sur le modèle des sciences de la nature, en s'appuyant sur un dualisme tranché. Tout en suggerant les apories où s'engage une methode introspective en psychologie, cette analyse s'est tenue cependant a un propos introductif."

  160. Wille, Dagmar von. 1991. Lessico Filosofico Della Fruhaufklarung: Christian Thomasius, Christian Wolff, Johann Georg Walch. Roma: Edizioni dell'Ateneo.

  161. Zedler, Heinrich. 2001. "Wolff (Christian)" Und "Wolffische Philosophie". Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    Two articles from H. Zendler's Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschaften und Künste (Leipzig and Halle 1748). Preface by Jean École.

  162. Zingari, Guido. 1980. "Die Philosophie Von Leibniz Und Die "Deutsche Logik" Von Christian Wolff." Studia Leibnitiana no. 12:265-278.

    "In this paper the possibility of comparing some speculative positions of Leibniz and Wolff concerning logic and theory of knowledge is considered on the basis of a reading of the Deutsche Logik especially as it refers to Leibniz. The affinities and above all the diversities of the conclusion, to which the two philosophers come, emerge from this reading. Theoretical presuppositions, such as the reduction of the critical exigency to Wolff's method or the method of analysis in Leibniz, are to be seen against Cartesian teaching. While undeniably ignoring the most original acquisitions of Leibniz's logic and theory of knowledge, from the symbolic assumption to implicit thoughts, and under the influence of English empiricism, Wolff elaborates a complex notion of experience which aims at is own autonomous validity."

WOLFFIANA: A MULTI-VOLUME COLLECTION OF ESSAYS ON CHRISTIAN WOLFF

  1. Cataldi Madonna, Luigi, ed. 2005. Wolffiana I. Macht Und Bescheidenheit Der Vernunft. Hildesheim: Georg Olms

    Beiträge zur Philosophie Christian Wolffs. Gedenkband für Hans Werner Arndt, mit acht Rariora.

    Vorwort; Hans Werner Arndt: Nachruf; Einleitung; Ehrenpromotion von Jean École; Plenums- und Abendvorträge.

    "Christian Wolff to whom Hans Werner Arndt devoted an important part of his life's work provides the thematic frame for this collection of commemorative essays. The articles deal with the role Wolff played in the history of philosophy, and various aspects of his metaphysics, logic, epistemology and practical philosophy. Thus, the collection becomes part of the Wolff revival initiated by Hans Werner Arndt about two decades ago.

    The authors, who share Arndt's commitment to the German philosopher, pay tribute to Arndt for the rediscovery of Christian Wolff and his work, which he made available to philosophical research.

    The supplement of this volume consists of eight lesser-known essays by Arndt. They are to demonstrate the scope of his interest in philosophy, which went far beyond Christian Wolff."

  2. Stolzenberg, Jürgen, and Rudolph, Oliver-Pierre, eds. 2007. Wolffiana II. Christian Wolff Und Die Europäische Aufklärung. Teil 1. Hildesheim: Georg Olms

    Akten des 1. Internationalen Christian-Wolff-Kongresses, Halle (Saale), 4-8 April 2004.

    Vorwort, Nachruf auf Hans Werner Arndt, Einleitung, Ehrenpromotion von Jean Ecole, Plenums- und Abendvorträge.

  3. ———, eds. 2007. Wolffiana II. Christian Wolff Und Die Europäische Aufklärung. Teil 2. Hildesheim: Georg Olms

    Akten des 1. Internationalen Christian-Wolff-Kongresses, Halle (Saale), 4-8 April 2004.

    System der Metaphysik. Logik. Ontologie. Psychologie.

    Inhalt: Sektionsvorträge. SEKTION i: SYSTEM DER METAPHYSIK. Oliver-Pierre Rudolph: Das Fundament des Wolffschen Systems der Philosophie 15; Thierry Arnaud: La fondation de la Theologie naturelle dans le systeme de la Métaphysique allemande 25; Henry Alexander Henrysson: Purposes, Possibilities and Perfection. The Metaphysical System of Leibniz and Wolff 39; Violetta L. Waibel: Die Systemkonzeptionen bei Wolff und Lambert 51; Jindrich Karásek: Philosophie als strenge Wissenschaft. Zur systematischen Begründung des Systems der Metaphysik bei Wolff und Kant 71; Cornelia Buschmann: Scientia affectiva practica - scientia practica universalis - scientia possibilium. Wolffs Wissenschaftsbegriff - Prolegomenon oder Abbreviatur der Metaphysik? 99; SEKTION 2: LOGIK. Juan Ignacio Gómez Tutor: Die wissenschaftliche Methode bei Christian Wolff 113; Ursula Neemann: Der Zusammenhang zwischen formalen und ontologischen Aspekten in der Urteilstheorie von Christian Wolff 124; Jean-Francois Goubet: Das Verhältnis zwischen mathematischer Methode und Logik 141; Matteo Favaretti Camposampiero: Usage des mots et connaissance symbolique chez Christian Wolff 153; Luigi Cataldi Madonna: Erfahrung und Intuition in der Philosophie von Christian Wolff 173; Vadim Kurpakov: Zum Einfluss von Wolff und Wolffianem auf die Kantische Logik 195; Hanno Birken-Bertsch: Erfahrung, Subreption und Idealismus. Von Wolff zu Kant 205; Konstantin Pollok: Christian Wolffs Begriffs- und Urteilstheorie als Vorläufer einer inferentiellen Semantik 219; SEKTION 3: ONTOLOGIE. Anne-Lise Rey: La lecture wolffienne de la Dynamique leibnizienne. Un moyen d'identifier la specificité de la notion de substance chez Wolff 237; Boguslaw Paz: Methode und Wahrheit bei Wolff 219; Vitaly IVanov: Principium omnium primum. Zur Frage nach der Stellung des Widerspruchsprinzips in der Ordnung der Explikation des Begriffs des Seienden in der Wissenschaft der Ontologie 273; Jeongwoo Park: Metaphysik des Spielraums. Wolffs Neubestimmung des Eventusbegriffs hinsichtlich des Seienden, des Systems und der Freiheit, insbesondere gegen Spinoza 291; Carlos Morujäo: Wolff, Kant und der Begriff der Existenz 301; Nelly Motroschilova: Kritik des 20. Jahrhunderts am ontologischen Projekt Christian Wolffs 311; SEKTION 4: PSYCHOLOGIE.

    Angelica Nuzzo: A Problem for Psychology. Kant and Wolff on Soul and Space 321; Pietro Pimpinella: Symbolische Erkenntnis bei Christian Wolff 339; Faustino Fabbianelli: Tatsachen des Bewusstseins und "nexus rerum" in Christian Wolffs Psychologie 355; Falk Wunderlich: Christian Wolff über Bewusstsein, Apperzeption und Selbstbewusstsein 367; Udo Thiel: Zum Verhältnis von Gegenstandsbewusstsein und Selbstbewusstsein bei Wolff und seinen Kritikern 377; Frank Grunert; Erinnerung als Kreation. Zur Gedächtnistheorie von Christian Wolff und der Wolff-Schule 391; Raffaele Ciafardone: Kraft und Vermögen bei Christian Wolff und Johann Nicolaus Tetens mit Beziehung auf Kant 405; Siglenverzeichnis 415-420.

  4. ———, eds. 2007. Wolffiana II. Christian Wolff Und Die Europäische Aufklärung. Teil 3. Hildesheim: Georg Olms

    Akten des 1. Internationalen Christian-Wolff-Kongresses, Halle (Saale), 4-8 April 2004.

    Kosmologie. Theologie. Praktische Philosophie.

  5. ———, eds. 2007. Wolffiana II. Christian Wolff Und Die Europäische Aufklärung. Teil 4. Hildesheim: Georg Olms

    Akten des 1. Internationalen Christian-Wolff-Kongresses, Halle (Saale), 4-8 April 2004.

    Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften. Ästhetik und Poetik.

  6. ———, eds. 2010. Wolffiana II. Christian Wolff Und Die Europäische Aufklärung. Teil 5. Hildesheim: Georg Olms

    Akten des 1. Internationalen Christian-Wolff-Kongresses, Halle (Saale), 4-8 April 2004.

    Wolff und seine Schule. Wirkungen Wolffs. Wolff in Halle. Verttreibung und Rückkerhr.

  7. Marcolungo, Ferdinando, ed. 2007. Wolffiana III. Christian Wolff Tra Psicologia Empirica E Psicologia Razionale. Hildesheim: Georg Olms

    Atti del seminario internazionale di studi, Verona, 13-14 maggio 2005.

    "The comparison of Psychologia empirica and Psychologia rationalis is one of the themes which are of fundamental importance to the understanding of Christian Wolff's philosophy. As is generally known, the terms themselves go back to the two major Latin works first published in 1732 and 1734. Contrary to the prevalent opinion which has viewed the difference between Psychologia empirica and Psychologia rationalis as purely a matter of tradition, here it is viewed rather as a distinction formulated in a specific way for Wolff and arising from the encounter between modern metaphysics and new scientific methods. Following the celebrations in 2004 to mark the 250th anniversary of Wolff's death, a scholarly conference took place at the University of Verona in 2005 with the aim of reconstructing this theme for the interpretation of a way of thinking which is too easily interpreted as the clearest example of an abstract and dogmatic rationalism. In the essays published here attention is drawn instead to the central role of experience which allows a continual comparison of psychic facts and philosophical considerations. From this comes the importance of the comparison with Locke and Malebranche, as well as analyses of what are known as ideales sensuales or typical processes of imagination and of symbolic language, and the possibility of the application of mathematics to psychometrics. Historically-based comparisons (Alsted, Baumgarten, Meier, Kant, Herbart) are also present, illuminating the afterlife of a way of thinking which surely prepared the ground for the development of a new philosophical anthropology."

    Indice: Sigle 1; Ferdinando Luigi Marcolungo: Introduzione 9; Axel Bühler: Ad Hans Werner Arndt (1930-2004), in memoriam 13; Ferdinando Luigi Marcolungo: Christian Wolff e il progetto di una psicologia filosofica 15; Jean-Francois Goubet: L'usage de la raison selon Wolff: entre logique, psychologie et anthropologie 35; Riccardo Pozzo: La logica di Wolff e la nascita della logica delle facoltà 45; Oliver-Pierre Rudolph: Aussenwelt und Aussenweltbewusstsein in der Psychologie Christian Wolffs 53; Davide Poggi: L'Essay di J. Locke e la Psychologia empirica di Christian Wolff 63; Manuela Mei: Sensazioni e Ideae sensuales nella filosofia di Christian Wolff 95; Luigi Cataldi Madonna: Immaginazione e arte geroglifica nella psicologia cognitiva di Christian Wolff 113; Ivan Valbusa: Psicologia e sistema in Alsted e in Wolff 131; Antonio Moretto: Matematica e psicologia empirica in Wolff 145; Clemens Schwaiger: Das Problem des Handelns wider besseres Wissen bei Wolff, Baumgarten und Meier 167; Paola Rumore: Materiali per la ricostruzione della prima diffusione e ricezione tedesca della psicologia empirica di Wolff 177; Stefano Poggi: Ontologia e psicologia: Herbart contro Wolff 195; Riccardo Martinelli: Wolff, Kant e le origini dell' antropologia filosofica 205.

  8. Fabbianelli, Faustino, Goubet, Jean-François, and Rudolph, Oliver-Pierre, eds. 2011. Wolffiana IV. Zwischen Grundsãtzen Und Gegestãnden. Untersuchungen Zur Ontologie Christian Wolffs. Hildesheim: Georg Olms

    "This volume embodies the new and lively interest in Christian Wolff which has been continuously developing over recent decades. It also bears witness to the rediscovery of ontology, a field of knowledge which has become increasingly visible, especially in recent years, in international philosophical reflection. The volume contains papers in German, French and Italian given at the international conference "Età dei Lumi e filosofia. L'ontologia di Christian Wolff", held in Parma from 19-21 February 2009. It is divided into six sections: "Structure and properties of Wolff's ontology", "'Signs'", "'Designation' and 'Ficta'", "Ontology in Wolff's thought", "Ontological debates", "The fate of Wolff's ontology" and "Wolff's ontology in the 20th century". The essays are complemented by an editors' introduction, an extensive bibliography and an index of names and subjects."

    Inhaltsverzeichnis: Siglen und Abkürzungen VII; Faustino Fabbianelli, Jean-François Goubet, Oliver-Pierre Rudolph: Einleitung XI.

    I. Teil. Struktur und Beschaffenheit der Ontologie Wolffs.

    1. Ferdinando Luigi Marcolungo: Wolff e l'ontologia 3; 2. Oliver-Pierre Rudolph: Christian Wolffs Ontologie als Wissenschaft des Möglichen 11; 3. Jean-Paul Paccioni: Sur la Würcklichkeit: "würcken" et "Würcklichkeit" 23;

    II. Teil.: "Zeichen", "Bezeichnung" und "Ficta".

    1. Luigi Cataldi Madonna: Segno e designazione nell'ontologia wolffiana 41; 2. Matteo Favaretti Camposampiero: Wolfius in fabula. L 'ontologia dei ficta 51;

    III. Teil: Die Ontologie innerhalb von Wolffs Denken.

    1. Manuela Mei: "Vis" e "facultas": i presupposti ontologici della psicologia cognitiva wolffiana 67; 2. Jean-François Goubet: Qu'y a-t-il d'ontologique dans la logique wolffienne ? Sur la verior logica 79; 3. Paola Basso: La filigrana ontologica del metodo matematico wolffiano 89;

    IV. Teil: Ontologische Auseinandersetzungen.

    1. Federica De Feiice: La critica wolffiana dell'Ethica di Spinoza nella Theologia naturalis II 103; 2. Davide Poggi: Tra psicologia e ontologia: Wolff, Locke e il principio di non contraddizione 115; 3. Robert Schnepf: Kausale Begriffe und die Probleme kategorialer Begriffsbildung bei Wolff und Crusius 129; 4. Andreas Brandt: Wolffs Raum- und Zeittheorie zwischen Leibniz, Newton und Kant 143; 5. Sophie Grapotte: La réfutation kantienne de la preuve 'woljftenne' de l'existence de Dieu 155;

    V. Teil: Das Schicksal von Wolffs Ontologie.

    1. Marco Sgarbi: Il destino dell'ontologia. Johann Joachim Spalding interprete di Christian Wolff 171; 2. Beatrice Centi: Ontologie und Psychologie - von Wolff zu Brentano 183;

    VI. Teil: Wolffs Ontologie im XX. Jahrhundert.

    1. Paola Rumore: L'ontologia di Wolff: un'ombra lunga sulla teoria dell'oggetto 203; 2. Faustino Fabbianelli: Ontologie und Gegenstandstheorie. Elemente zu einer Gegenüberstellung von Wolff und Meinong 215; 3. Tinca Prunea-Bretonnet: L'ontologie wolfßenne: modèle implicite de la pensée métaphysique de Kant? 229; 4. Giuseppe D'Anna: Essere, ente ed oggetto. Christian Wolff tra Nicolai Hartmann e Hans Pichler 241;

    Bibliographie 255; Personenverzeichnis 285; Sachverzeichnis 291.

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