Theory and History of Ontology

by Raul Corazzon | e-mail: rc@ontology.co

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Annotated Bibliography on Avicenna's Logic and Metaphysics: First Part: A - K

Second Part: L - Z

For the studies on Avicenna the main bibliographical resources are:

  • Janssens, Jules L. 1991. An Annotated Bibliography on Ibn Sina (1970-1989). Including Arabic and Persian publications and Turkish and Russian References . Leuven: Leuven University Press.

  • ———. 1999. An Annotated Bibliography on Ibn Sina. First Supplement (1990-1994) . Louvain-La-Neuve: Fédération Internationale des Instituts d'Études médiévales.

  • ———. 2016. An Annotated Bibliography on Ibn Sina. Second Supplement (1995-2009). Temple (Arizona): ACMRS Publications.

    "Forthcoming 2016.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. Le livre du Millenaire d'Avicenne. 1956. Teheran: Imprimerie de l'Université de Téhéran.

    Vol. IV: "Conférences des membres du Congrés d'Avicenne prononcées en langue allemande.anglaise et française sur la biographie, l'époque, les opinions et les œuvres d'Avicenne (2-7 Ordibehechte 1333; 22-27 Avril 1954)"

  2. Adamson, Peter. 2005. "On Knowledge of Particulars." Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society no. 105:273-294.

    "Avicenna's notorious claim that God knows particulars only 'in a universal way' is argued to have its roots in Aristotelian epistemology, and especially in the Posterior Analytics. According to Avicenna and Aristotle as understood by Avicenna, there is in fact no such thing as 'knowledge' of particulars, at least not as such. Rather, a particular can only be known by subsuming it under a universal. Thus Avicenna turns out to be committed to a much more surprising epistemological thesis: even humans know particulars only in a universal way."

  3. ———, ed. 2013. Interpreting Avicenna. Critical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  4. Afnan, Soleil M. 1958. Avicenna. His Life and Works. London: George Allen & Unwin.

    Reprinted Westport, Greenwood Press, 1980.

  5. Ahmed, Asad Q. 2003. "Avicenna's treatment of Aristotelian modals. A study based on conversion rules and the Barbara problematic." In Before and after Avicenna. Proceedings of the First Conference of the Avicenna Study Group, edited by Reisman, David C. and Al-Rahim, Ahmed H., 3-24. Leiden: Brill.

  6. Al-Ahwani, Ahmad Fuad. 1963. "Being and substance in Islamic philosophy. Ibn Sina versus Ibn Rushd." In Die Metaphysik im Mittelalter, edited by Wilpert, Paul, 428-436. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

  7. Alonso, Alonso Manuel. 1957. "'Al-qiwam' y 'al anniyya' en las traducciones de Gundisalvo." Al-Andalus no. 22:377-405.

    "En muchas de las obras traducidas se encontró Gundisalvo con la palabra al-qiwam. Vamos a recorrerlas transcribiendo los pasajes más representativos para darnos a entender su significado. (p. 381)

    (...)

    Después de haber señalado así la mayoría de los pasajes en que Gundisalvo, tanto en las traducciones como en sus propias obras emplea la palabra 'existentia' para traducir al-qiwam, y despues de haber visto que Gundisalvo quiere asi significar et 'esse' o 'quo est' como contradistinto de 'quod est', debemos preguntarnos ¿qué es lo que et propio Avicena entiende por al-qiwam? Desde luego tratamos del sentido correspondiente inmediato entre el concepto y la cosa significada, no de un sentido implicito o de un sentido consecuente al modo como al decir 'casa' significamos 'el techo' y significamos 'las paredes', y al designar et 'individuo' designamos su 'esencia especifica'.

    Primeramente observemos que hoy por al-qiwam todo el mundo entiende la 'subsistentia' (traducción que tambien Gundisalvo aceptó, como hemos visto). Por esto dice A.-M. Goichon: «599. -'Qiwâm', subsistence, sens donné par Lane art. qiwam et rukn, mais qui n'est presque jamais rendu exactement par les traductions, pourtant des plus diverses». No podían traducir al-qiwam por 'subsistentia', porque el latin corriente de entonces carecía de esa palabra. No se encontrará vocabulario del rabe ni arabista entendido que haya visto en Avicena el uso de al-qiwam en el sentido de 'existencia' contrapuesta a la 'esencia' corno principia quibus de las cosas, ni Gundisalvo lo vió, ya que la 'existencia' para él no significa lo que en tiempos posteriores a los suyos vino a significar. Contra los que quieren ver en el al-qiwam de Avicena o en la `existentia' de Gundisalvo ese significado de tiempos posteriores, ya es bastante decir que nadie, conocedor del árabe, haya encontrado tal significado en dicho al-qiwam aviceniano.

    En segundo lugar, la existencia en ese sentido posterior a los tiempos de Gundisalvo es algo simple en sí el acto último que entra en la composición de las cosas. Es, como veremos, algo del orden de la al-anniyya de Avicena. En cambio, el al-qiwam aviceniano es algo compuesto de 'acto' y `potencia', mas o menos simples (cada uno de por sí), o bien mas o menos determinados. (pp. 392-393).

    (...)

    Que ese 'acto' y esa 'potencia' pueden recibir (según la dottrina de Avicena) determinaciones, hasta convertirse en lo que Santo Tomas llamó 'materia' y `forma', es manifiesto por et mismo pasaje a que aludimos, ya que a continuación prueba Avicena que ese acro de al qiwam es en las plantas y animales ' et alma` y esa potencia del mismo al-qiwam es 'el cuerpo' . De aquí que ese al-qiwam sea ciertamente la 'constitucion' de la cosa, o sea su esencia específica, su mahiyya, como por otro nombre lo nombra el mismo Avicena, según luego vamos a ver. He ahí por que Gundisalvo, en la traduction de la Isagoge de Avicena equiparo el 'esse' (o 'quo est') de Boecio a la rnahiyya aviceniana, y la traduce cerca de cien veces por 'esse', y este 'esse', según el, se define: «Esse est existentia formae in materia». Esta existencia, pues, es la esencia específica o simplemente 'la esencia', dicha en abstracto, solo que latinistas posteriores a Gundisalvo cambiaron los conceptos que implicaban esas palabras.

    De aquí que tengamos en Avicena pasajes que contradistinguen entre sí al-qiwam y ' existencia' ( al-wuyud) en cuanto se suele contraponer a 'la esencia'. (p. 394).

    (...)

    En otro artículo seguiremosn: con el estudio de al anniyya en las obras de Avicena. El hecho de que una palabra se apoderó del significado de la otra, al par que et confusionismo que de eso se siguió y aun vemos seguir, relacionó de un modo inconveniente los terminos al-qiwam y al-anniyya y sus mismos conceptos. Pero quizá con lo dicho y con lo que diremos después encontremos alguna mayor claridad en ese boscaje de traducciones e interpretaciones." (p. 405).

  8. ———. 1958. "La 'al-anniyya' de Avicena y el problema de la esencia y existencia (fuentes literarias)." Pensamiento no. 14:311-346.

  9. ———. 1959. "La 'al-anniyya' y el 'al-wuyud' de Avicena y el problema de la esencia y existencia. La essencialidad de la 'al-anniyya'." Pensamiento no. 15:375-400.

  10. ———. 1962. "'Al-wuyud' y 'al-mahyya', existencia y esencia." Al-Andalus no. 27:299-342.

  11. ———. 1963. "Accidente, accidental y número según Avicena." Al-Andalus no. 28:117-154.

  12. al-Shahrastani. 2001. Struggling with the Philosopher. A Refutation of Avicenna's Metaphysics. London: I. B. Tauris Publishers.

    A new Arabic edition and English translation of Muhammad b. 'Abd al-Karim b. Ahmad al-Shahrastani's Kitab al Musara'a, edited by Wilfred Madelung and Toby Mayer.

  13. Alverny, Marie-Thèrese d'. 1959. "Anniyya - Anitas." In Mélanges offerts à Étienne Gilson, de l'Académie française, 59-91. Paris: Vrin.

    Repris dans Avicenne en Occident (chapitre X).

  14. ———. 1962. "Notes sur les traductions médiévales d'Avicenne." Archives d'Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge no. 27:337-358.

  15. ———. 1993. Avicenne en Occident. Paris: Vrin.

    Receuil d'articles de Marie-Thérèse d'Alverny, réunis en hommage à l'auteur.

    Avant-propos de Danielle Jacquart.

  16. Anawati, Georges C. 1951. "La tradition manuscrite orientale de l'œuvre d'Avicenne." Revue Thomiste no. 51:407-440.

    Repris dans: G. C. Anawati, Études de philosophie musulmane, Paris: Vrin, 1974, pp. 229-262.

  17. ———. 1960. "Chronique avicennienne 1951-1960." Revue Thomiste no. 60:614-634.

  18. ———. 1974. "St. Thomas d'Aquin et la Métaphysique d'Avicenne." In St. Thomas Aquinas 1274-1974. Commemorative studies, edited by Gilson, Étienne, 449-465. Toronto: Pontificial Institute of Mediaeval Studies.

  19. ———. 1978. "Introduction historique à une nouvelle traduction de la Mètaphysique d'Avicenne." In Avicenne. La Métaphysique du Shifa. I-V., 11-79. Paris: Vrin.

    Repris dans: Mélanges de l'Institut Dominicain d'Etudes Orientales (MIDEO) 13, 1977, pp. 171-252.

  20. ———. 1992. "Quelques remarques sur les termes exprimant "l'existence" dans la philosophie et la théologie musulmanes." In En hommage au professeur Jean Maurice Fiey, edited by Anawati, Georges C., Arnaldez, Roger and Bredy, Michael, 75-98. Beyrouth: Araya Imprimerie catholique.

  21. Ayada, Souâd. 2002. Avicenne. Paris: Ellipses.

  22. Bäck, Allan. 1987. "Avicenna on Existence." Journal of the History of Philosophy no. 25:351-367.

    "In Islamic philosophy, in particular, with Ibn Sina (Avicenna), there appears, in quite explicit form, a view of predication at odds with many current interpretations of Aristotle and views of predication. That view is that the simple affirmative categorical proposition 'S is p' is to be read as 'S is (existent) as a p', and that for its truth it is required both that S be existent and that S be p. This paper sketches out the development of that view. It then shows how this view resolves such vexing problems in interpreting Aristotle's logic and ontology as the existential import assumption and his view of First philosophy."

  23. ———. 1992. "Avicenna's conception of the modalities." Vivarium no. 30:217-255.

  24. ———. 1993. "The ordinary language approach in Traditional logic." In Argumentationstheorie. Scholastische Forschungen zu den logischen und semantischen Regeln korrekten Folgerns, edited by Jacobi, Klaus, 507-530. Leiden: Brill.

  25. ———. 1999. "The Ontological Pentagon of Avicenna." Journal of Neoplatonic Studies no. 7:87-109.

  26. ———. 2001. "Avicenna and Averroes: Modality and Theology." In Potentialität und Possibilität. Modalaussagen in der Geschichte der Metaphysik, edited by Buchheim, Thomas, Kneepkens, Corneille Henri and Lorenz, Kuno, 125-145. Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog.

  27. ———. 2004. "Avicenna on the categorical assertion." In Medieval Theories on Assertive and Non-Assertive Language. Acts of the 14th European Symposium on Medieval Logic and Semantics - Rome, June 11-15, 2002, edited by Maierù, Alfonso and Valente, Luisa, 141-162. Firenze: Olschki.

  28. Banchetti-Robino, Marina Paola. 2004. "Ibn Sina and Husserl on intention and intentionality." Philosophy East and West.

    "The concepts of intention and intentionality were particularly significant notions within the Christian, Jewish, and Islamic medieval philosophical traditions, and they regained philosophical importance in the twentieth century. The theories of intention and intentionality of the medieval Islamic philosopher and physician Ibn Sina and the phenomenological philosopher and mathematician Edmund Husserl are examined, compared, and contrasted here, showing that Ibn Sina's conception of intention is naturalistic and, in its naturalism, is influenced by the medical professional culture to which Ibn Sina belonged. As well, Husserl's anti-naturalistic conception of intentionality is influenced by his background as a mathematician and by his desire to ground mathematics and the empirical sciences in a truly scientific philosophy. In conclusion, an argument is presented for the superiority of the Husserlian transcendentalist account of intentionality over the Avicennian naturalistic account, on the grounds that the latter falls prey to psychologism and reductionism, the two specters that according to Husserl must haunt all naturalistic accounts of consciousness."

  29. Bertolacci, Amos. 1998. ""Subtilius speculando". Le citazioni della "Philosophia prima" di Avicenna nel Commento alla "Metafisica" di Alberto Magno." Documenti e Studi sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale no. 9:261-339.

  30. ———. 1999. "Metafisica A 5, 986a 22-26 nell' Ilahiyyat del Kitab al-Sifa' di Ibn Sina." Documenti e Studi sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale no. 10:205-232.

  31. ———. 2001. "From Al-Kindi to Al-Farabi. Avicenna's progressive knowledge of Aristotle's Metaphysics according to his autobiography." Arabic Sciences and Philosophy no. 11:257-295.

    "The autobiography witnesses a significant evolution in Avicenna's approach to Aristotle's Metaphysics during the years of his education. It clearly shows that, at a certain point of his philosophical training, Avicenna faced the entire text of the Metaphysics, was puzzled by its extent and complexity, and found in a treatise by al-Farabi a guide for its understanding. But, albeit less perspicuously, the autobiography also suggests that this was not Avicenna's first encounter with the Metaphysics. Avicenna dealt with Aristotle's work in a previous stage of his studies as well. Then, however, he did not read the Metaphysics in its entirety, but, rather, focused only on its essential parts and some commentaries thereupon. The parts of the Metaphysics that Avicenna read in this earlier stage were books Alpha Elatton and Lambda, as constituting the natural theology of Aristotle's work. He neglected, on the contrary, the books corresponding to its ontological part. The special attention to Alpha Elatton and Lambda and the close connection between these two books in a theological context were peculiar traits of al-Kindi's approach to Aristotle's Metaphysics. Therefore, the evolving approach to Aristotle's Metaphysics that Avicenna's autobiography witnesses can properly be described as a passage from the Kindian to the Farabian way of interpretation."

  32. ———. 2001. "Le citazioni implicite testuali della Philosophia prima di Avicenna nel Commento alla Metafisica di Alberto Magno: analisi tipologica." Documenti e Studi sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale no. 12:179-274.

  33. ———. 2002. "The structure of Metaphysical Science in the Ilahiyyat (Divine Science) of Avicenna's Kitab-al-Sifa' (Book of the Cure)." Documenti e Studi sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale no. 13:1-69.

  34. ———. 2002. "The doctrine of material and fornal causality in the Ilahiyyat (Divine Science) of Avicenna's Kitab al-Sifa' (Book of the Cure)." Quaestio.The Yearbook of the History of Metaphysics no. 2:125-154.

  35. ———. 2003. "Some texts of Aristotle's Metaphysics in the Ilahiyat of Avicenna's Kitab al-Šifa'." In Before and After Avicenna. Proceedings of the First Conference of the Avicenna Study Group, edited by Reisman, David C., 24-47. Leiden: Brill.

  36. ———. 2004. "La ricezione del libro G ( Gamma) della Metafisica nell' Ilahiyyat del Kitab al-Šifa' di Avicenna." In Aristotele e I suoi esegeti neoplatonici. Logica e ontologia nelle interpretazioni greche e arabe.

    Atti del Convegno internazionale Roma 19-20 ottobre 2001, edited by Celluprica, Vincenza and D'Ancona Costa, Cristina, 173-210. Napoli: Bibliopolis.

  37. ———. 2004. "The reception of Book B (Beta) of Aristotle's Metaphysics in the Ilahiyat of Avicenna's Kitab al-Sifa'." In Interpreting Avicenna. Science and Philosophy in Medieval Islam. Proceedings of the Second Conference of the Avicenna Study Group, edited by McGinnis, Jon, 157-174. Leiden: Brill.

  38. ———. 2005. "Il pensiero filosofico di Avicenna." In Storia della filosofia nell'Islam Medievale. Vol. II, edited by D'Ancona Costa, Cristina, 522-626. Torino: Einaudi.

  39. ———. 2005. "Ammonius and al-Farabi: the sources of Avicenna's concept of metaphysics." Quaestio.The Yearbook of the History of Metaphysics no. 5:287-305.

  40. ———. 2005. "On the Arabic translations of Aristotle's Metaphysics." Arabic Sciences and Philosophy no. 15:241-275.

  41. ———. 2006. The Reception of Aristotle's Metaphysics in Avicenna's Kitab al-Sifa'. A Milestone of Western Metaphysical Thought. Leiden: Brill.

    Contents: Introduction VII; Abbreviations XV;

    Part One. The Arabic reception of the Metaphysics before Avicenna.

    Introduction 3; 1. The Arabic translations of the Metaphysics: a new assessment on account of the evidence provided by Avicenna 5; 2. Beyond al-Kindi and al-Farabi: Avicenna's position in the history of the Arab reception of the Metaphysics 37; 3. Between Ammonius and Avicenna: al-Farabi's treatise On the Goals of Aristotle's Metaphysics 65;

    Part Two. The scientific profile of the Metaphysics according to Avicenna.

    Introduction 107; 4. Avicenna' conception of the theme of the Metaphysics: "existent qua existent" as the subject-matter, the first causes and God as the goal of metaphysics 111; 5. Avicenna's reworking of the structure of the Metaphysics: metaphysics as the discipline dealing with the species, the properties and the principles of "existent" 149; 6. Avicenna's elaboration of the method of the Metaphysics: metaphysics as a demonstrative, analytical, non-dialectical science 213; 7. Avicenna's view of the relationship of the Metaphysics with the other parts of the Aristotelian corpus: metaphysics as the founding discipline 265;

    Part Three. The content of the Metaphysics according to Avicenna.

    Introduction 305; 8. The quotations of the Metaphysics in the Ilahiyyat 309; 9. The main source of Avicenna's conception of metaphysics as a science: book Gamma and its quotations 375; 10. Avicenna's attitude towards dialectic: book Beta and its quotations 403; 11. The other sources of the Ilahiyyat 441; Conclusion 471;

    Appendices.

    Appendix A: Towards a critical edition of the Ilahiyyat: list of corrections of the Cairo printed text 483; Appendix B: Index of authors and works quoted in the Ilahiyyat 559; Appendix C: Overview of the main works by Avicenna on metaphysics in chronological order 581; Appendix D: Names for Aristotle's Metaphysics and metaphysics as a discipline in Avicenna's works 593; Appendix E: The style of the Kitab al-Sifa' 607; Appendix F: The terminology for "property" in the Ilahiyyat 613;

    Bibliography 617; Index of names and places 655; Index of Aristotle's works with passages cited 665; Index of Avicenna's works with passages cited 666; Index of manuscripts 669; Index of texts, outlines, tables 670-675.

  42. ———. 2007. "Avicenna and Averroes on the proof of God' existence and the subject-matter of metaphysics." Medioevo.Rivista di Storia della Filosofia Medievale no. 32:61-98.

  43. ———. 2011. "The 'Ontologization' of Logic. Metaphysical Themes in Avicenna's Reworking of the Organon." In Methods and Methodologies. Aristotelian Logic East and West, 500-1500, edited by Cameron, Margaret and Marenbon, John, 27-52. Leiden: Brill.

  44. Black, Deborah. 1997. "Avicenna on the Ontological and Epistemic Status of Fictional Beings." Documenti e Studi sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale no. 8:425-453.

  45. ———. 1999. "Mental existence in Thomas Aquinas and Avicenna." Mediaeval Studies no. 61:45-81.

    "In this article I examine how Aquinas employs the Avicennian notion of the mental or conceptual existence of the common nature. I first show how the characteristic features of Avicenna's cognitive psychology, in particular its occasionalist and emanationist framework, bear upon his understanding of mental existence. I then examine Aquinas's adoption of the notion of mental existence with special reference to his doctrine of the intelligible species, which are totally absent from Avicenna's cognitive psychology. I conclude that Aquinas dilutes the original Avicennian conception of mental existence in virtue of his making the intelligible species, rather than the common nature itself, the subject of mental existence."

  46. Bloch, Ernst. 1952. Avicenna und die aristotelische Linke. Berlin: Rütten & Loening.

  47. Bogoutdinov, A.M. 1950. "A notable philosophical production of the Tadjik people: Ibn-Sina's Donish-Nameh." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research no. 11:25-39.

  48. Booth, Edward. 1983. Aristotelian Aporetic Ontology in Islamic and Christian Thinkers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    See: Ibn Sina and the Reordering of Aristotle' Thought, pp. 107-126.

  49. Brown, Stephen. 1965. "Avicenna and the Unity of the Concept of Being. The Interpretations of Henry of Ghent, Duns Scotus, Gerard of Bologna and Peter Aureoli." Franciscan Studies no. 25:117-150.

    "This article treats the question of the analogy and the univocity of being in Henry of Ghent, John Duns Scotus, Hervaeus Natalis, Gerard of Bologna and Peter Aureoli. Each provides his own view of the concept of being and thus each gives a different interpretation to Avicenna's metaphysical starting point".

  50. Burrell, David B. 1986. "Essence and Existence: Avicenna and Greek Philosophy." Mélanges de l'Institut Dominicain d'Etudes Orientales (MIDEO) no. 17:53-66.

  51. Caster, Kevin J. 1996. "The Distinction between Being and Essence According to Boethius, Avicenna, and William of Auvergne." Modern Schoolman no. 73:309-332.

  52. Ceylan, Yasin. 1993. "A critical approach to the Avicennian distinction of essence and existence." Islamic Studies no. 32:329-337.

  53. Chahine, Osman. 1962. Ontologie et théologie chez Avicenne. Paris: A. Maisonneuve.

  54. Collins, Joseph F. 1944. "Intentionality in the philosophy of Avicenna." Modern Schoolman no. 21:204-215.

  55. Cruz, Hernandez Miguel. 1949. La metafísica de Avicena. Grenada: Universidad de Grenada.

  56. ———. 1956. "La distincion aviceniana de la esencia y la existencia y su interpretacion en la filosofia occidental." In Homenaje a Millás-Vallicrosa. Vol. II, 351-374. Barcelona: Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas.

  57. ———. 1959. "La noción de 'ser' en Avicena." Pensamiento no. 15:83-98.

  58. ———. 1999. "El concepto de metafísica de Avicena." In Avicenna and His Heritage. Acts of the International Colloquium Leuven-Louvain-la-Neuve, September 8-September 11, 1999, edited by Janssens, Jules and Smet, Daniel de, 47-56. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

  59. ———. 2002. "La doctrina del entendimiento en Avicena." Revista Espanola de Filosofia Medieval no. 9:11-17.

  60. Cunningham, Francis A. 1974. "Averroes vs Avicenna on Being." New Scholasticism no. 48:185-218.

    "Avicenna has been interpreted as having held the real distinction between 'esse' and 'essence'; Averroes as having criticized him on this point: "Avicenna made a big mistake here." A closer reading, however, will, I believe, reveal that Avicenna was talking about two intelligible notes, 'intentiones' or 'dispositiones', in the comprehension of a concept, whereas Averroes was pushing two different modes of understanding that same content. St. Thomas thought that Averroes "was closer to the truth." No Arabic scholar today would, so far as I can make out, read that real distinction into this context. Avicenna has also been accused of holding an independent order of possibles, just as Averroes was accused of holding a double truth theory. Both charges were libels."

  61. D'Ancona Costa, Cristina. 2000. "Avicenna and the Liber de Causis: a contribution to dossier." Revista Espanola de Filosofia Medieval no. 7:95-115.

    "Taking as a starting point the knowledge that the Arab world had of the neo-Platonic texts ascribed to Aristotle, such as the Pseudo-Theology and the Liber de Causis, the author of this study investigates the possible knowledge that Avicenna had of this under book, well-known in the Arab world under the title of Kalamfi mahd al-hayr. In order to demonstrate this, she provides an analysis of four passages that belong to the Metaphysics of the great philosophical encyclopaedia Al-Sifa' ("The cure").""

  62. Davidson, Herbert Alan. 1979. "Avicenna's Proof of the Existence of a Being Necessarily Existent by Virtue of Itself." In Islamic Philosophical Theology, edited by Morewedge, Parviz, 165-187. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Reprinted in: H. A. Davidson, Proofs for Eternity, Creation and the Existence of God in Medieval Islamic and Jewish Philosophy, New York: Oxford University Press, 1987 pp. 281-310.

    "The first philosopher known to use the concept of necessary existence in order to construct a proof of the existence of God was Avicenna. Avicenna's proof, it will appear, neither is, nor inevitably reduces itself to, an ontological proof. It is rather a certain kind of cosmological proof.

    The concept of necessary existence is used by Avicenna to prove the existence of God in two works, at length in the Najat, briefly and somewhat obscurely in the Isharat. The concept is also discussed fully in two other works, the Shifa and Danesh Namesh, but there Avicenna employs it only to define the nature of God, not, as far as I can see, to establish His existence."

  63. ———. 1992. Alfarabi, Avicenna, and Averroes on Intellect. Their Cosmologies, Theories of the Active Intellect, and Theories of Human Intellect. New York: Oxford University Press.

  64. Decorte, Jos. 2002. "Avicenna's ontology of relation: a source of inspiration to Henry of Ghent." In Avicenna and His Heritage. Acts of the International Colloquium Leuven-Louvain-la-Neuve, September 8-September 11, 1999, edited by Janssens, Jules and Smet, Daniel de, 197-224. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

  65. Di Martino, Carla. 2008. Ratio particularis: La doctrine des sens internes d'Avicenne à Thomas d'Aquin. Paris: Vrin.

    Contribution à l'étude de la tradition arabo-latine de la psychologie d'Aristote.

  66. Druart, Thérèse-Anne. 2001. " Shay' or Res as Concomitant of 'Being' in Avicenna." Documenti e Studi sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale no. 12:125-142.

  67. El-Bizri, Nader. 2000. The Phenomenological Quest between Avicenna and Heidegger. Bingamton: Global Publications, Binghamton University.

  68. ———. 2001. "Avicenna and Essentialism." Review of Metaphysics no. 54:753-778.

  69. Endress, Gerhard. 1997. "L'Aristote arabe. Réception, autorité et transformation du Premier Maître." Medioevo.Rivista di Storia della Filosofia Medievale no. 23:1-42.

  70. ———. 2006. "Reading Avicenna in the Madrasa. Intellectual genealogies and chains of transmission of philosophy and the sciences in the Islamic East." In Arabic Theology, Arabic Philosophy. From the Many to the One: Essays in Celebration of Richard M. Frank, edited by Montgomery, James E., 371-422. Leuven: Peeters.

  71. Fakhry, Majid. 1963. "Notes on existence and essence in Averroes and Avicenna." In Die Metaphysik im Mittelalter: ihr Ursprung und ihre Bedeutung. Vorträge des 2. Internationalen Kongresses für mittelalterliche Philosophie, Köln, 31. August-6. September 1961, edited by Wilpert, Paul, 414-417. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

    Miscellanea Medievalia - Vol. 2.

  72. ———. 1984. "The subject-matter of metaphysics: Aristotle and Ibn-Sina." In Islamic Theology and Philosophy. Studies in Honor of G. Hourani, edited by Marmura, Michael E., 137-147. Albany: State University of New York Press.

    Reprinted in: M. Fakhry, Philosophy, Dogma, and the Impact of Greek Thought in Islam, Aldershot: Variorum (Essay XII).

  73. Finianos, Ghassan. 1976. Les grandes divisions de l'être "Mawjud" selon Ibn Sina. Fribourg: Éditions Universitaires de Fribourg.

  74. ———. 2007. De l'existence à la nécessaire existence chez Avicenne. Bordeaux: Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux.

  75. Gamarra, Daniel O. 1986. "Esencia, posibilidad y predicacion: a proposito de una distincion Aviceniana." Sapientia no. 41:101-120.

  76. ———. 1990. Esencia y objeto. Bern: Peter Lang.

    Esencia y possibilidad segun Avicena, o la raiz de un problema gnoseologico: la esencia tema de la objectividad. Planteamento historico, pp. 15-133.

  77. García Marques, Alfonso. 1987. "La polemica sobre el ser en el Avicena y Averroes Latinos." Anuario Filosofico no. 20:73-103.

  78. Gardet, Louis. 1951. La pensée religieuse d'Avicenna (Ibn Sina). Paris: Vrin.

  79. Gaskill, Thomas Edward. 1992. Ibn Sina's Ontology in his Dänishnäma 'Ala'i, Vanderbilt University, Nashville.

    Unpublished Ph.D thesis available at UMI Dissertation Express, ref. number 9230973.

  80. Ghorab, A. A. 1972. "The Greek Commentators on Aristotle quoted in Al-' Amiris' "As-Sa'āda wa'l-Is'ād"." In Islamic Philosophy and the Classical Tradition. Essays Presented by His Friends and Pupils to Richard Walzer on His Seventieth Birthday, edited by Stern, S.M., Hourani, Albert and Brown, Vivian, 77-88. London: Bruno Cassirer.

  81. Gilson, Étienne. 1927. "Avicenne et le point de départ de Duns Scot." Archives d'Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge no. 2:402-408.

  82. ———. 1929. "Les sources greco-arabes de l'augustinisme avicennisant." Archives d'Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge no. 4:5-107.

  83. ———. 1969. "Avicenne en Occident au Moyen Âge." Archives d'Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge no. 44:89-121.

    Repris dans: Étienne Gilson, Études Médiévales, Paris: Vrin, 1986, pp. 193-121.

  84. Goichon, Amélie-Marie. 1937. La distinction de l'essence et de l'existence d'aprés Ibn Sina (Avicenne). Paris: Desclée de Brouwer.

    Reprint: Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfrurt am Main, 1999.

  85. ———. 1938. Lexique de la langue philosophique d'Ibn Sina (Avicenne). Paris: Desclée de Brouwer.

    Reprint: Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, 1999.

  86. ———. 1939. Vocabulaires comparés d'Aristote et d'Ibn Sina. Supplément au Lexique de la langue philosophique d'Ibn Sina (Avicenne). Reprint: Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, 1999. ed. Paris: Desclée de Brouwer.

  87. ———. 1942. La philosophie d'Avicenne et son influence en Europe médiévale. Paris: Maisonneuive.

    Forlong Lectures 1940.

    Deuxième édition, corrigée et augmentée 1984.

    English translation: The Philosophy of Avicenna and Its Influence on Medieval Europe - Translated from the French with notes, annotations, and a preface by M. S. Khan - Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1969.

  88. ———. 1952. "Avicenne, le philosophe de l'être." Revue de l'Institut des Belles Lettres Arabes no. 15:49-62.

  89. ———. 1963. "La démonstration de l'existence dans la logique d'Avicenne." In Mélanges d'orientalisme offerts à Henri Massé à l'occasion de son 75ème anniversaire, 165-184. Téhéran: Imprimerie de l'Université.

  90. ———. 1969. The Philosophy of Avicenna and Its Influence on Medieval Europe. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

    Translated from the French La philosophie d'Avicenne et son influence en Europe médiévale with notes, annotations, and a preface by M. S. Khan.

  91. Goodman, Lenn. 1969. "A note on Avicenna's theory of the substantiality of the soul." Philosophical Forum no. 1:547-554.

  92. ———. 1992. Avicenna. New York: Routledge.

    Contents: Preface; List of abbreviations; 1. Life, times, writings 1; 2. Metaphysics 49; 3. Ideas and immortality 123; 4. Logic, persuasion, and poetry 184; Index 234.

  93. Gutas, Dimitri. 1994. "Ibn Tufayl on Ibn Sina's Eastern Philosophy." Oriens.Journal of the International Society of Oriental Research no. 34:221-249.

  94. ———. 1998. Greek Thought, Arabic Culture. The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad and Early Abbasid Society (2nd-4th/8th-10th centuries). New York: Routledge.

    Translated in Italian by Cristina D'Ancona Costa as: Pensiero greco e cultura araba, Torino: Einaudi, 2002.

  95. ———. 2000. "Avicenna's Eastern ("Oriental") philosophy. Nature, contents, transmission." Arabic Sciences and Philosophy no. 10:159-180.

    "An initial section traces the history of the development of these tendentious ideas first to Ibn Tufayl and then to the followers of his interpretation in the West in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    Further sections discuss the title of the book, list its contents insofar as they can be reconstructed from Avicenna's statements and the extant portions, and provide additional information about its manuscripts and transmission. The style of the work is then analyzed and compared with that of the Sifa' in order to verify Avicenna's claim in the preface to the latter work that the difference between the two was merely stylistic. A final section gives a table of concordance between the contents of the extant part on physics and the corresponding sections in the Sifa', establishing the direct relationship and verbal congruity between the two works."

  96. ———. 2002. "The heritage of Avicenna: the Golden Age of Arabic philosophy, 1000-ca. 1350." In Avicenna and His Heritage. Acts of the International Colloquium Leuven-Louvain-la-Neuve, September 8-September 11, 1999, edited by Janssens, Jules and Smet, Daniel de, 81-97. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

  97. ———. 2002. Pensiero greco e cultura araba. Torino: Einaudi.

    Traduzione italiana di Cristina D'Ancona Costa di Greek Thought, Arabic Culture (2008).

  98. ———. 2006. "Imagination and transcendental knowledge in Avicenna." In Arabic Theology, Arabic Philosophy. From the Many to the One: Essays in Celebration of Richard M. Frank, edited by Montgomery, James E., 337-354. Leuven: Peeters.

  99. ———. 2007. Avicenna e la tradizione aristotelica. Introduzione alla lettura delle opere filosofiche di Avicenna

    Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition. Introduction to Reading Avicenna's Philosophical Works. Bari: Edizioni di Pagina.

    Traduzione italiana di Marienza Benedetto di Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition (prima edizione, 2008).

  100. ———. 2014. Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition. Introduction to Reading Avicenna's Philosophical Works. Leiden: Brill.

    Second, Revised and Enlarged Edition, Including an Inventory of Avicenna’s Authentic Works.

    First edition 1988, translated in Italian by Marienza Benedetto, Avicenna e la tradizione aristotelica. Introduzione alla lettura delle opere filosofiche di Avicenna, Bari: Edizioni di Pagina, 2007.

  101. ———. 2014. Orientations of Avicenna's Philosophy: Essays on his Life, Method, Heritage. Aldershot: Ashgate.

    A collection of seventeenth studies previously published.

    Contents:  I. Avicenna: biography 1-11; II. Avicenna's Madhab, with an appendix on the question of his date of birth 323-336; III.  Texts from Avicenna's library in a copy by 'Abd-ar-Razzaq as-Signahi 1-25; IV. Avicenna's marginal glosses on De anima and the Greek commentatorial tradition 77-88; V. Avicenna's Eastern ("Oriental") philosophy: nature, contents, transmission 159-180; VI. The logic of theology (kalam) in Avicenna 59-72; VII. The empiricism of Avicenna 1-53; VIII. Medical theory and scientific method in the age of Avicenna 145-162; IX. Avicenna: the metaphysics of the rational soul 417-425; X. Intuition and thinking: the evolving structure of Avicenna's epistemology 1-38; XI. Imagination and transcendental knowledge in Avicenna 337-354; XII. Intellect without limits: the absence of mysticism in Avicenna 1-22; XIII. Avicenna: mysticism and the question of his "Oriental" philosophy 1-10; XIV. The heritage of Avicenna: the golden age of Arabic philosophy, 1000 - ca. 1350 81-97; XV. Philosophy in the twelfth century: one view from Baghdad, or the repudiation of al-Ghazali 9-26; XVI. Ibn Tufayl on Ibn Sina's Eastern philosophy 222-241; XVII. The study of Avicenna. Status quaestionis atque agenda 45-69.

  102. Hasnawi, Ahmad. 1991. "Aspects de la synthèse avicennienne." In Penser avec Aristote, edited by Sinaceur, Mohammed Allal, 227-244. Toulouse: Erès.

  103. ———. 1998. "Le mouvement et les catégories selon Avicenne et Averroès: l'arrière-fond grec et les prolongements latins médiévaux." Oriens-Occidens no. 2:119-122.

  104. ———. 2001. "La définition du mouvement dans la 'Physique' du Sifa' d'Avicenne." Arabic Sciences and Philosophy no. 11:219-255.

  105. ———. 2004. "Le statut catégorial du mouvement chez Avicenne: contexte grec et postérité médiévale latine." In De Zénon d'Élée à Poincaré. Recueil d'études en hommage à Roshdi Rashed, edited by Morelon, Régis and Hasnawi, Ahmad, 607-622. Louvain: Peeters Publishers.

  106. Hasse, Dag Nikolaus. 2000. Avicenna's De Anima in the Latin West: the Formation of a Peripatetic Philosophy of Soul 1160-1300. London: Warburg Institute.

  107. Hasse, Dag Nikolaus, and Bertolacci, Amos, eds. 2012. The Arabic, Hebrew and Latin Reception of Avicenna's "Metaphysics". Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

  108. Herrera Ibáñez, Alejandro. 1990. "La distinción entre esencia y existencia en Avicena." Revista Latinoamericana de Filosofía no. 16:183-195.

    "In this paper I examine (I) Avicenna's view that existence is an accident, (IIi) the status of the problem of the real distinction between essence and existence, and (III) the nature of Avicenna's essentialism. I conclude that Avicenna anticipated Frege and Russell in holding that existence is an accident of accidents. I also defend the view that Avicenna held that there is a real distinction between essence and existence. Finally, I hold that Avicenna's essentialism anticipates Meinong's view about nonexistent objects."

  109. Hodges, Wilfrid. 2011. "Ibn Sina and Conflict in Logic." In Logic, Mathematics, Philosophy, Vintage Enthusiasms, Essays in Honour of John L. Bell, edited by DeVidi, David, Hallett, Michael and Clark, Peter, 35-68. Dordrecht: Springer.

  110. Houser, Rollen Edward. 1981. "The place of the first principle of demonstration in Avicennian metaphysics." In Proceedings of the Patristic, Medieval and Renaissance (PMR) Conference. Vol. 6, 117-134. Villanova: Augustinian Historical Institute, Villanova University.

  111. ———. 1999. "Let them suffer into the truth: Avicenna's remedy for those denying the axioms of thought." American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly no. 73:107-133.

    "For those who are intransigent enough to deny even the principle of noncontradiction, Avicenna advises putting them to the fire or beating them, until they admit that pain is different from nonpain. This treatment may seem too severe, but illustrates theory and practice in his philosophy, and when viewed in that light even becomes reasonable. The paper has four parts: (1) how certain events in Avicenna's autobiography illustrate the interplay of philosophy, religion, and politics in his mind, (2) Avicenna's treatment of the principles of metaphysics in "Shifa', Met." 1, (3) Avicenna's reading of Aristotle on noncontradiction, (4) Avicenna's own treatment of noncontradiction in " Shifa'. Met." 1.8."

  112. Hussain, Mohd. 1992. "The doctrine of Being in Ibn Sina's metaphysics." Islam and the Modern Age no. 23:176-182.

  113. Inati, Shams. 1984. "Ibn Sina on single expressions." In Islamic Theology and Philosophy. Studies in Honor of G. Hourani, edited by Marmura, Michael E., 148-159. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  114. Jalbert, Guy. 1960. "Le nécessaire et le possible dans la philosophie d'Avicenne." Revue de l'Université d'Ottawa no. 30:89-101.

  115. Janssens, Jules. 1999. "L'Avicenne latin: particularités d'une traduction." In Avicenna and His Heritage. Acts of the International Colloquium Leuven-Louvain-la-Neuve, September 8-September 11, 1999, edited by Janssens, Jules and Smet, Daniel de, 113-129. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

    Repris dans: J. Janssens, Ibn Sina and His Infulence on the Arabic ans Latin World, Aldersoht: Ashgate, 2006.

  116. ———. 2003. "Avicenne et sa "paraphrase-commentaire" du livre Lambda ( Kitab-alinsaf)." Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie Médiévales no. 70:401-416.

  117. ———. 2006. Ibn Sina and His Influence on the Arabic and Latin World. Aldershot: Ashgate.

    Collection of articles already published with a new preface.

    Contents: Preface; Ibn Sina, and his heritage in the Islamic world and in the Latin West; Ibn Sina's ideas of ultimate realities: Neoplatonism and the Qur'an as problem-solving paradigms in the Avicennian system; The problem of human freedom in Ibn Sina; Creation and emanation in Ibn Sina; Ibn Sina (Avicenne): un projet 'religieux' de philosophie?; Les Ta'liqat d'Ibn Sina: essai de structuration et de datation; Le Danesh-Nameh d'Ibn Sina: un texte à revoir?; Le ma'arij al-quds fi madarij ma'rifat al-nafs: un élément-clé pour le dossier Ghazzali-Ibn Sina?; Al-Ghazzali's Mi`yar al-'ilm fi fann al-mantiq: sources avicenniennes et farabiennes; Al-Ghazzali's Tahafut: is it really a rejection of Ibn Sina's philosophy?; Al-Ghazzali, and his use of Avicennian texts; Bahmanyar ibn Marzuban: a faithful disciple of Ibn Sina?; Mulla Sadra's use of Ibn Sina's Ta'liqat in the Asfar; L'Avicenne latin: particularités d'une traduction; L'Avicenne latin: un témoin (indirect) des commentateurs (Alexandre d'Aphrodise - Thémistius - Jean Philopon); Some elements of Avicennian influence on Henry of Ghent's psychology; Elements of Avicennian metaphysics in the Summa; Index.

  118. ———. 2006. "Le vocabulaire d'Avicenne." In Le vocabulaire des philosophes. Suppléments. Vol. I, edited by Zarader, Jean-Pierre, 13-64. Paris: Ellipses.

  119. Janssens, Jules, and Smet, Daniel de, eds. 2002. Avicenna and His Heritage. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

    Acts of the International Colloquium Leuven-Louvain-la-Neuve, September 8-September 11, 1999.

  120. Jolivet, Jean. 1984. "Aux origines de l'ontologie d'Ibn Sina." In Études sur Avicenne, edited by Jolivet, Jean and Rashed, Roshdi, 11-28. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

    Repris dans Jean Jolivet, Philosophie médiévale arabe et latine, Paris: Vrin, 1995, pp. 221-236.

  121. ———. 1991. "La répartition des causes chez Aristote et Avicenne: le sens d'un déplacement." In Lectionum varietates. Hommage à Paul Vignaux (1904-1987), edited by Jolivet, Jean, Kaluza, Zénon and Libera, Alain de, 45-65. Paris: Vrin.

    Repris dans Jean Jolivet, Philosophie médiévale arabe et latine, Paris: Vrin, 1995, pp. 289-305.

  122. ———. 1997. "L'épistémologie de Descartes dans les Regulae et celle d'Avicenne." In Descartes et le Moyen age, edited by Biard, Joël and Rashed, Roshdi, 187-197. Paris: Vrin.

  123. ———. 1998. "From the Beginnings to Avicenna." In Routledge History of Philosophy. Volume III: Medieval Philosophy, edited by Marenbon, John, 29-48. New York: Routledge.

  124. ———. 2000. "Le vocabulaire de l'être et de la création dans la Philosophia prima de l' Avicenna latinus." In L'élaboration du vocabulaire philosophique au Moyen Âge, edited by Hamesse, Jacqueline and Steel, Carlos, 35-49. Turnhout: Brepols.

    Repris dans Jean Jolivet, Philosophie médiévale arabe et latine, Paris: Vrin, 1995, pp. 217-227.

    "Aborder les thèmes de l'être et de la création chez Avicenne c'est, en principe, risquer une recherche immense à travers les concepts qui structurent trois dès domaines où les spéculations du grand philosophe sont les plus remarquables et aussi les plus difficiles: l'ontologie et la cosmologie, avec leur jointure. Les prendre tels qu'ils s'offrent dans le travail des traducteurs tolédans du 12e siècle, c'est tenter d'en saisir le fil tel qu'il pouvait apparaître à travers un ensemble lexical différent de celui de leur origine, constitué dans une langue d'un type différent et, a priori, moins riche; et d'autant moins que le fonds spécial dont disposaient ces traducteurs, leur vocabulaire technique, s'était constitué à partir de textes qui avaient assez peu à voir avec ceux que pratiquait Avicenne: c'étaient ceux de la philosophie latine, des Pères et de Boèce, quelque peu de Platon et de la logique d'Aristote, transposés en latin. D' autant plus remarquable, notons-le, est que les premiers lecteurs de ce corpus avicennien devenu accessible aient su en faire l'usage que l'on sait. On voudrait ici proposer seulement quelques remarques sur une partie du lexique ainsi constitué, en noter quelques correspondances plus ou moins réussies avec celui d'Avicenne, y accrocher quelques observations. Nous disposons pour cela d'un instrument de travail inestimable: les trois tomes de la Philosophia prima publiés par la regrettée Simone Van Riet et dont le troisième offre un double lexique: arabe-latin et latin-arabe, où est donc recueillie toute la matière de notre examen (1)." p. 35

    (1) Avicenna Latinus. Liber de philosophia prima sive scientia divina, I-X. Lexiques, par S. Van Riet, Louvain-la-Neuve, E. Peeters - Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1983. Le texte latin se trouve dans les deux autres tomes (1977 et 1980), sous une numérotation des pages continue de l'un à l'autre (I, de 1 à 219 ; II, de 227 à 553). Le texte arabe est ici celui d'Ibn Sinâ, Al-Šifa. Ilahiyyât, 2 vol., Le Caire, Organisation générale des impressions gouvernementales, 1380/1960.

  125. Jolivet, Jean, and Rashed, Roshdi, eds. 1984. Études sur Avicenne. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

  126. Koutzarova, Tiana. 2009. Das Transzendentale bei Ibn Sina. Zur Metaphysik als Wissenschaft Erster Begriffs- und Urteilsprinzipien. Leiden: Brill.

    "Following al-Farabi's approach, Ibn Sina undertakes a new foundation of the First Philosophy based on his own critical systematisation of the Aristotelian theory of science, yielding the result that metaphysics is only possible as a transcendental science, i.e. that not only the subject-matter of metaphysics and its properties but also the arguments by which the first principles of knowledge are defended must be transcendental."

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